Conducting meticulous ethnographic research in a diversity of settings and drawing on cutting-edge social theory, we challenge established ways of thinking about global health issues and open up new avenues for responding to them.
We work on diverse themes, from global pandemics to violence against women and children, and from antimicrobial resistance to the ethics of clinical trials in low-resource settings.
Our team is comprised of over 50 medical anthropologists with a range of research interests and regional expertise.
The Anthropological Approaches to Global Health group (AAGH) brings together a team of medical anthropologists conducting innovative research on a variety of topical challenges in global health. We work in settings across the world, with a focus on health challenges that disproportionately affect people living in low and middle-income countries. The topics we address include:
- Antimicrobial resistance
- Epidemic preparedness and response
- Gender-based violence
- Humanitarian crises
- Medical research and bioethics
- Pharmaceutical supply chains
- Roles of the private and informal retail sectors
- Universal health coverage
We critically analyse these health challenges at multiple levels, from the ways in which they are framed on the global stage, through to their enactment in particular settings through policy, research and interventions. Always looking to push intellectual boundaries, we draw on theories from medical anthropology, critical global health, science and technology studies, history and numerous other fields to offer fresh insights. Many of our studies are grounded in ethnographic method and involve immersive, longitudinal fieldwork to understand local realities and concerns, which we use to challenge assumptions and established ways of thinking. Our studies are designed in close collaboration with local partners and stakeholders to identify pressing research needs and to ensure responsive and impactful anthropological research. We also increasingly work as part of interdisciplinary collaborations that include clinicians, epidemiologists, economists, lab scientists, pharmacists and veterinarians to develop innovative mixed-methods approaches.
World-leading scholars present and discuss their research in our regular monthly medical anthropology seminar series.
The AAGH team is connected to a number of other groups, hubs and centres, including:
- Adolescent social science research in Zimbabwe
In partnership with the Biomedical Research Training Institute in Zimbabwe, we are conducting social science research focused on adolescent health in Zimbabwe.
Constance Mackworth-Young is the lead social scientist for this work, supported by Sarah Bernays, as the senior social science advisor (both members of the Department of Global Health and Development). The social science research is embedded within projects and trials on Adolescent Health led by Rashida Ferrand, Director of the Zimbabwe-LSHTM Research Group.
Process evaluation of the CHIEDZA trial: a community-based sexual and reproductive health intervention for adolescents
CHIEDZA, which stands for Community based interventions to improve HIV outcomes in adolescents: a cluster randomised trial in Zimbabwe, is a two-year study to develop and evaluate the impact of a community-based, youth-friendly reproductive and sexual health service on improving HIV outcomes in people aged 16-24. STI screening within CHIEDZA (STICH) is a sub-study which aims to evaluate the effectiveness of community-based screening for STIs among youth in Zimbabwe.
We are conducting a process evaluation of both CHIEDZA and STICH, which aims to understand the intervention's implementation, mechanisms of action, and the role of local context to inform and understand the intervention. The MRC Process Evaluation Framework informs this study. Specific service focuses include on HIV, STI screening and family planning. Methods include non-participant observation of intervention sites, interviews with clients and providers, and participant observation of team meetings.
- Rashida Ferrand
- Constance Mackworth-Young
- Sarah Bernays
- Constancia Mavodza
- Suzanna Francis
- Joanna Busza
- Maureen Tshuma
- Rangarirayi Nyamwanza
- Portia Nzombe
Y-CHECK: Co-designing routine health check-ups during adolescence
The Y-CHECK study seeks to co-design and evaluate an intervention programme to screen, treat and refer adolescents for a range of common health conditions using routine health check-ups undertaken at two time points during adolescence (the first between 10 to 14 years, and the second between 15 to 19 years).
Zimbabwe is one of the three sites where the study is being conducted, alongside Ghana, and Tanzania. It is coordinated by the World Health Organization, in collaboration with London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Biomedical Research & Training Institute in Zimbabwe, University of Ghana School of Public Health and Mwanza Intervention Trials Unit.
Through a process of co-design with adolescents, parents, healthcare professionals, teachers and key stakeholders a routine health check-up design was created. This entailed a review of existing programmes and data, key informant interviews and workshops using participatory approaches with all stakeholders. The co-designed intervention will be piloted and its effectiveness and cost-effectiveness will be evaluated, pending funding.
The African coaLition for Epidemic Research, Response and Training (ALERRT) aims reduce the public health and socio-economic impact of REPID in SSA. This will be achieved by building a sustainable clinical and laboratory research preparedness and response network, with the operational readiness to rapidly implement clinical and laboratory research in support of REPID control efforts at local, regional and international level. Our role is the lead Work Package 5, which aims to understand effective community engagement through anthropological research.
Using systematic reviews, workshops and drawing anthropological research and political theory we aim to interrogate community engagement in response and research for emergent diseases
- Anthropology of antimicrobial resistance
The Anthropology of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Research Group applies ethnographic approaches and social theories such as pharmaceuticalisation, care, global health assemblages and multi-species perspectives to the study of AMR. We currently have seven ongoing projects with collaborators in a number of low and middle-income countries, including Uganda, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Thailand and Myanmar. Our work addresses numerous topics, including pharmaceutical supply chains, prescribing practice in clinics and hospitals, clinical guidelines and algorithms, antibiotic use in residential and farm settings, and the roles of the private and informal providers.
Our approach is grounded in a commitment to slow thinking and exploring alternative ways of thinking about the 'problem' of AMR to those offered in prevailing discourses. In particular we seek to move beyond approaches which centre the individual and their behaviour and to instead foreground the complex interactions between epidemiology, economics, infrastructure, politics and culture that lead people use and depend on antimicrobials. To this, we use both discourse analysis to examine the framing of AMR in the global policy arena, as well as in-depth ethnographic research to examine antimicrobial use in context and the effects of AMR interventions in local worlds.
Febrile Illness Evaluation in a Broad Range of Endemicities (FIEBRE) – a fever aetiology study with social science work on antimicrobial use in Zimbabwe, Malawi and Myanmar.
Drivers of Resistance in Uganda and Malawi (DRUM) – research in Malawi and Uganda into how antimicrobial use in humans, animals and wider environment contribute to AMR.
Capacity Sharing for AntiMicrobial Stewardship (CaSAMS) – a collaboration between UK and Ugandan institutions to establish an antimicrobial stewardship committee at a referral hospital in Uganda.
- Clare Chandler
- Laurie Denyer-Willis
- Coll Hutchison
- Justin Dixon
- Eleanor MacPherson
- Nicolas Fortane
- Chris Pinto
- Jenny Westad
Resources and Publications
Quick fix for care, productivity, hygiene and inequality: reframing the entrenched problem of antibiotic overuse
Laurie Denyer-Willis and Clare Chandler
BMJ Global Health
Knowing antmicrobial resistance in practice: a multi-country qualitative study with human and animal healthcare professionals
Maddy Pearson & Clare Chandler
Global Health Action
The ‘Drug Bag’ method: lessons from anthropological studies of antibiotic use in Africa and South-East Asia
Justin Dixon, Eleanor MacPherson, Salome Manyau, Susan Nayiga, Yuzana Khine Zaw, Miriam Kayendeke, Christine Nabirye, Laurie Denyer Willis, Coll de Lima Hutchison and Clare I. R. Chandler
Global Health Action
Antibiotic prescribing and resistance: Views from low- and middle-income prescribing and dispensing professionals
Doble A, Glogowski R, Ibezim S, Lazenby T, Heilie Redai A, Shaikh N, Treharne A, Yardakul S, Yemanaberhan R, Reynolds L, Chandler C
Anthropology’s contribution to AMR control
Laurie Denyer-Willis and Clare Chandler
The modern era must end: antibiotic resistance helps us rethink medicine and farming
Coll de Lima Hutchison, Gwen Knight, Richard Stabler, Clare Chandler
Addressing Antimicrobial Resistance Through Social Theory: An Anthropologically Oriented Report
Clare Chandler, Eleanor Hutchinson, Coll Hutchison, C 2016
Technical Report. London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
Antimicrobial Resistance and Anthropology: Research Brief
Chandler, C.I.R., and Hutchinson, C.
ESRC AMR Research Champion/University of Bristol
- Anthropological exploration of facilitators and barriers to vaccine deployment and administration during disease outbreaks (AViD)
Recent outbreaks have made clear that inadequate consideration of social, cultural, political, and religious factors in humanitarian responses has consequences for the effectiveness and community acceptability of response activities. A growing number of studies have focused on the historical, social, cultural and political determinants of vaccine acceptance, and have highlighted the specificities of these dynamics during emergencies. While these theories are useful to help understand potential issues for vaccine deployment and administration during an outbreak, there are gaps in the evidence, particularly relating to acquiring evidence in real-time.
Given the wider range of disease and contexts, there is a need to understand different of perspectives about vaccines and outbreaks, including the political and economic factors that determine whether vaccines can be deployed effectively in an emergency situation, health system perspectives, which are closely tied to cultural, policy, and historical developments in how provision is organised as well as local systems of to identify community perceptions surrounding vaccine use. Finally, given that many diseases are zoonotic, understandings of community experiences of vaccination in both human and animal health are needed.
This study sets out to address these gaps through qualitative, comparative research across four different countries to explore the facilitators and barriers to vaccine deployment during outbreaks. Rather than focusing on one disease/vaccine or one context, this study will explore an “ecosystem” of vaccine deployment, drawing on different perspectives in low-income contexts and for the poorest in middle-income contexts.
Using a multiple-case study approach and a mix of qualitative and ethnographic methods including key stakeholder interviews, document analysis and participant observation, the project will ensure insights into the complex web of factors that determine countries’ ability to deploy vaccines during an outbreak. Each case study aims to shed light on different factors that determine preparedness for emergency vaccine deployment.
- Children and adolescents Uganda, South Africa and Zimbabwe
Over the past decade there has been a considerable amount of work at the MRC/UVRI and LSHTM Uganda Research Unit, and over the past 5 years at the Africa Health Research Institute, focused on the health and wellbeing of children and young people. This has been led by Janet Seeley and colleagues in Uganda and South Africa, and Zimbabwe. Janet often works in collaboration with Sarah Bernays, as well as experienced social scientists in Uganda (Godfrey Siu, Agnes Ssali, Rachel Kawuma, Flavia Zalwango and Andrew Ssemata) and South Africa (Nothando Ngwenya, Thembelihle Zuma, Rujeko Samanthia Chimukuche, Busisiwe Nkosi and Oluwafemi Adeagbo). Two current examples:
Lending a hand: developing a support structure for young migrants in South Africa and Uganda
A significant proportion of young people in sub-Saharan Africa migrate to towns or cities, where they hope to find work and build their livelihood. Our aim is to develop and test the acceptability and feasibility of a protective support structure for young migrants (aged 14-24 years old) in urban settings in South Africa and Uganda as means of early intervention to reduce the harm of patterns of risk behaviour (sexual risk and violence) associated with youth migration.
Specifically we are 1) establishing a small peer supporter network in three sites in Uganda and South Africa to provide advice and support over the telephone to young migrants; 2) offering a call hub staffed by a peer-supporter during the day and early evening who can provide information and onward referral to local health and social services, information on safe spaces where items such as free condoms are available and access to a counsellor/nurse for advice (this list may be modified/adapted following the planning phase with young people in the first few months of the study) and 3) supporting local (adult) champions and local resources/safe spaces to enable a supportive environment for the well-being adolescent and young people who are migrants. This project is funded through the MRC/DFID/NIHR Adolescent Health Call.
ODYSSEY (Once daily dolutegravir based ART in young people vs. standard therapy). A randomised trial of dolutegravir (DTG)-based antiretroviral therapy vs. standard of care (SOC) in children with HIV infection starting first-line or switching to second-line ART (PENTA 20)
The social science component of this trial – which Sarah Bernays and Janet Seeley lead – is to investigate how best to support children and young people to maintain optimal adherence to second-line HIV treatment. Participants enrolled in ODYSSEY B aged 10-18 years who have known about their HIV status for a minimum of six months have been recruited. We are working in two ODYSSEY trial sites in Uganda Zimbabwe, Harare in Zimbabwe. We have recruited 20 participants (40 in total) in each site and conducted two in-depth individual interviews and a series of focus group discussions with the trial participants at different stages of the trial will be conducted.
- Consolidating practice in social science research for Ebola, DRC
A collaboration between the University of Oxford, UNICEF and LSHTM, this project supports the response to the Ebola epidemic in North Kivu and Ituri provinces, Democratic Republic of Congo, one of the most complex epidemics that national and international communities have faced. Given the complexity of this protracted epidemic, social science research has become a critically important part of the response in order to help contextualise strategies, investigate social determinants of infection, and inform understanding and reception of interventions employed for outbreak control. To routinely generate this intelligence, an innovative solution has emerged in the form of the Cellule d’Analyse en Sciences Sociales. UNICEF-funded, this group is made up predominantly of local and national social scientists. Other ad hoc social science research is also being conducted in the field.
Through this project we aim to consolidate learning and articulate what is needed to replicate similar initiatives in future outbreaks. We will provide remote technical support, conduct structured critical appraisal of the field experience, capture lessons learned, and develop guidance and tools for the current and for future outbreaks. Our vision is to contribute to better outbreak prevention and response through excellence in social and behavioural science research, integrated into current and future responses to infectious disease.
- Contested legitimacy for anthropologists involved in medical humanitarian action: Experiences from the 2014-2016 West Africa Ebola epidemic
The study involved exploring lessons learnt of anthropologists and other social scientists, and key informants from humanitarian organisations involved in infectious disease responses, collating and assessing rapid ethnographic assessment tools and methodologies for use by social scientists in infectious disease outbreaks.
The approach included in-depth interviews with anthropologists and humanitarian workers, and a round table discussion at a Wellcome Trust event led by Shelley Lees, Karl Blancher, Jennifer Palmer and Fanny Procureur.
- Shelley Lees (co PI)
- Karl Blanchet (co PI)
- Jennifer Palmer
- Fanny Procureur
Lees S, Palmer J, Procureur F and Blanchet K (In Press) Contested legitimacy for anthropologists involved in medical humanitarian action: Experiences from the 2014-2016 West Africa Ebola epidemic. Anthropology and Medicine
- Anthropological study to explore the sociocultural context of sexual violence against children in Zanzibar
To understand the sociocultural context of sexual violence against children in Zanzibar, anthropological research including ethnography and in-depth interviews with key informants, parents and adolescents.
- Shelley Lees
- Karen Devries
Lees, S and Devries, K (2018). Local narratives of sexual and other violence against children and young people in Zanzibar. Culture, Health and Sexuality. 20(1):99-112
- Older people in Uganda and South Africa
The direct and indirect effects of HIV/ AIDS on the Health and wellbeing of older people study (WOPS). Wave 5 (externally funded by NIA/NIH through WHO).
A collaboration with WHO. The overall goal is to contribute evidence to guide the development and implementation of health programmes to meet older people's needs, especially those living with or otherwise affected by HIV. A detailed survey will be conducted with approximately 600 people aged 50 and over in Kalungu, Masaka and Entebbe, using the tool and approach used in Waves 1, 2, 3 and 4. Waves 1-3 were also conducted in South Africa, providing valuable comparative data for the two countries.
The impact of COVID-19 on older people in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
The process of ageing and the superimposed pressures caused by life events related to the HIV epidemic, co-morbidities, the COVID-19 pandemic and the associated lockdown have multiple interrelated implications for older people (60 years and older). The combination of the stress about daily living and fears of infection with SARS-CoV-2 have the potential to affect the health of older people. There are several studies on the experiences of grandparent caregivers in the context of the HIV-epidemic, and some work on older people living with HIV, but limited work to date on the experience of older people living through, or once lifted, lived through lock down and who may experience anxiety caused by the knowledge that they are particularly at risk from COVID-19 infection. This project aims to fill this gap by situating a longitudinal study using qualitative methods to study the impact of COVID-19 and the lock down on older people in the PIP area in uMkhanyakude. We are collecting oral diaries, once a month for six months (October 2020 to March 2021). Janet Seeley in working with Nothando Ngwenya, Ntombizonke Gumede and Anita Edwards.
- Pandemic preparedness: local and global concepts and practices in tackling disease threats in Africa
The research examines ‘preparedness from below’ – the understandings and practices of communities through which they anticipate and manage disease threats such as COVID-19 on a daily basis. We aim to identify entry points and pathways for connecting global, intermediate and local ‘assemblages’ in ways that build on, enhance and support the legitimacy and agency of communities’ ‘preparedness from below’. Ethnographic fieldwork is being conducted in Sierra Leone and Uganda.
- Melissa Parker
- Fred Martineau
Partner organisations include:
- Institute of Development Studies, Sussex
- Centre Régional de Recherche et de Formation à la prise en charge de Fann (CRCF, Senegal)
- Institut de recherche pour le développement
- Njala University
- Gulu University
Parker, M., MacGregor, H and Akello, G 2020. COVID-19, public authority and enforcement. Medical Anthropology. https://doi.org/10.1080/01459740.2020.1822833
Baluku, M., Akello, G., Parker, M and Grant, C 2020. How the ‘disease of the radio’ is affecting people on the Uganda-DRC border. https://www.ids.ac.uk/opinions/covid-19-how-the-disease-of-the-radio-is-affecting-people-on-the-uganda-drc-border/
MacGregor, H., Leach, M., Wilkinson, A and Parker, M. 2020. Covid-19 – a social phenomenon requiring diverse expertise. https://www.ids.ac.uk/opinions/covid-19-a-social-phenomenon-requiring-diverse-expertise/
- Preparedness for future epidemic outbreaks
As part of a wider consortium called EBOVAC 3, we lead on a work package using anthropological and survey methods to explore how Sierra Leone, Guinea and DRC are prepared for future disease outbreaks.
In Sierra Leone, the LSHTM team lead innovative research exploring and disrupting notions of household structure and care-giving during peace-time to inform preparedness for epidemic outbreaks. We also study the legacies of Ebola clinical trials. In Guinea, Frederic Le Marcis, professor of social anthropology at the Département des Sciences Sociales, Ecole normale supérieure de Lyon, is conducting a study on thinking preparedness in the light of history. Unmasking virological longue durée in Guinea, Rubis Le Coq is conducting doctoral research on seeking care in times of fear.
- Shelley Lees (PI)
- Shona Lee
- Frederic LeMarcis
- Rubis LeCoq
- Public authority and international development
The ESRC-funded Centre for Public Authority and International Development is based at the LSE and explores how governance works in marginalised and conflict-affected regions. It investigates the complexity of public authority and the risks and opportunities this creates for international development and inclusive growth (add link)
Melissa Parker’s contributions to this multi-disciplinary and collaborative project includes on-going research about: (i) Ebola and public authority (ii) COVID-19, public authority and enforcement and (iii) the various ways in which day to day experiences of child soldiers returning from the Lord’s Resistance Army in northern Uganda are shaped by formal, hybrid and informal public authorities.
Resources and publications
Parker, M., MacGregor, H and Akello, G 2020. COVID-19, public authority and enforcement. Medical Anthropology. https://doi.org/10.1080/01459740.2020.1822833
Allen, T., Atingo, J., Atim, D., Ocitti, J., Brown, C., Torre,C., Fergus, C. and Parker, M. 2020. What happened to children who returned from the Lord’s Resistance Army in Uganda. Journal of Refugee Studies
Torre, C., Mylan, S., Parker, M and Allen, T 2020. Is promoting war trauma a good idea?Anthropology Today 35 (6): 3-6.
Parker, M., Hanson, T., Vandi, A., Babawo, L and Allen, T 2019. Ebola and public authority: saving loved ones in Sierra Leone. Medical Anthropology 38 (5): 440-454.
Parker, M., Hanson, T.M., Vandi, A., Babawo, L.S. and Allen, T. 2019. Ebola, community engagement, and saving loved ones. The Lancet, published online on June 10th at: https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2819%2931364-9
McKay, G and Parker M, (2018). ‘Epidemics’ In: Humanitarianism: A Dictionary of Concepts, pp: 81-95. Edited by T. Allen, Macdonald, A and Radice H. London/New York: Routledge
- Social science research of the EBOVAC1 and PREVAC vaccine trials in Sierra Leone
These multifaceted studies are exploring understand vaccine and trial acceptability by conducting in depth social science research (anthropology). This research has examined understandings and experiences of Ebola and vaccines, perspectives of the vaccine and the trial as well as rumours, and concerns.
Traditional social science methods, including in-depth interviews, focus groups discussions and ethnography, will employed to ensure an in-depth exploration is conducted and wider lessons can be learned for the current Ebola outbreak and any future outbreaks of this and other new infectious diseases. Further to this, rapid approaches will be employed to ensure that findings are quickly fed back to the trial investigators and trial processes and communication around the trial can be adapted to ensure that participants and communities accept the trial and that adherence and acceptability are high.
Enria L & Lees S (2018) Citizens, Dependents, Sons of the Soil: Defining Political Subjectivities through Encounters with Biomedicine during the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone Medical Anthropology Theory
Tengbeh A, Enria L, Smout E, Mooney T, Callaghan M, Ishola D, Leigh B, Watson-Jones D, Greenwood B, Larson H, Lees S (2018) “We are the heroes because we are ready to die for this country”: Participants’ Decision-making and “Grounded Ethics” in an Ebola vaccine clinical trial. Social Science & Medicine. 203: 35-42.
Enria, L., Lees, S., Smout, E., Mooney, T., Tengbeh, A. F., Leigh, B., ... & Larson, H. (2016). Power, fairness and trust: understanding and engaging with vaccine trial participants and communities in the setting up the EBOVAC-Salone vaccine trial in Sierra Leone. BMC Public Health, 16(1), 1140.
- Social science research within the MAISHA study, Tanzania
The MAISHA Study is a cluster randomised trial to assess the impact of a combined micro-finance and gender training intervention for women, and the impact of a participatory gender training programme for women and their partners. The social science research focuses on women’s experiences of intimate partner violence and of the intervention. This longitudinal qualitative study with trial participants shows that violence against women is situated within structures that create marginalisation and vulnerability to violence, including distribution and use of resources in the home, the community, and at the political level. In order to understand violence, a political economy approach is thus required and should incorporate broader links between poverty, identity and power, as well as reveal historical contingencies.
- Shelley Lees
- Sheila Harvey
- Saidi Kapiga
- Charlotte Watts
- The effects of cash transfers on intrahousehold dynamics and intimate partner violence in Mali
In 2014 the Government of Mali began implementing the “Filets Sociaux (Jigisémèjiri)” program that aims at reducing inter-generational poverty and improving human capital accumulation through targeted cash transfers to predominantly male heads of household, accompanying measures (trainings), and preventive nutrition packages. Research has revealed significant impacts of the program on experiences of physical violence amongst women in polygamous relationships.
This study used qualitative interviews with women and men in households to provide an in-depth exploration of the effects of the program on intimate partner relationships in Mali. Findings of the study revealed that positive aspects around intimate partner relationships were communication and shared values; however, much of the discussion around decision-making narrated male authority and limited power for women to influence decisions. The cash transfer reduced household poverty and improved personal wellbeing, especially for men. Whilst there were few discussions around the effects of the program on intimate partner violence, there were clear narratives on the reduction of tensions and disputes that lead to physical violence. This may have been greater in polygamous households, where there were more tensions and disputes over responsibilities across a husband and his wives and across co-wives.
- Shelley Lees
- Nambusi Kyeombe
Lees, S, Kyegombe, N, Diatta, A. D, Zongrone, A, Roy, S, Hidrobo, M (In Press) Intimate partner relationships and gender norms in Mali: The scope of cash transfers targeted to men to reduce intimate partner violence. Violence Against Women
- Unreached Populations in Uganda
Achieving the next big step in management of the HIV epidemic requires research and intervention development which not only engages with the structural factors that influence the spread of HIV, but also targeted approaches to facilitate access to health and social services. Janet Seeley and colleagues, including Rachel King (UCSF), Suzanna Francis and Helen Weiss in EPH, have undertaken a number of studies with women at high risk for HIV infection in Kampala, Uganda and, Janet with Andrew Ssemata, Sarah Nakamanya and other Ugandan colleagues have been working with fisherfolk around Lake Victoria. In addition, Martin Mbonye, a THRIVE fellow has been pursuing his PhD (supervised by Godfrey Siu and Janet Seeley) with men in long term relationships with sex workers in Kampala.
A cognitive behavioural and structural HIV prevention intervention for young Ugandan women engaging in high risk sexual behaviour (ZETRA) (PI Rachel King, UCSF)
A randomized controlled trial (RCT) testing the effectiveness of a combination structural and cognitive-behavioural prevention intervention for HIV-uninfected women aged 15 to 24 years who engage in high risk sexual activity. The intervention focuses on repeat HIV testing and counselling every 6 months, and increasing and sustaining sexual risk reduction behaviours to reduce STIs, HIV, and unplanned pregnancy. We have had three linked components that address both individual and structural factors affecting health care use as well as sexual behaviour and reproductive health decision-making: 1) peer group sessions that include alternative livelihood options and mentoring, 2) networking and reinforcement of healthy behaviuor using mobile technology, and 3) individual cognitive behavioural counselling by a trusted adult. We enrolled 614 HIV-uninfected women age 15- 24 years who engage in high risk sexual activity in Kampala. Half randomised to the intervention arm. We followed the women for 18 months to assess frequency of unprotected sex (primary outcome), repeat HIV testing, unmet need for family planning, incidence of STIs including HIV, incidence of unintended recurrent pregnancies, and retention in care up to 18 months post-enrolment (secondary outcomes).
Masculinity and Health Seeking Behaviours of Regular Male Partners of Female Sex Workers in Kampala, Uganda (Martin Mbonye’s PhD project)
The main objective of the study has been to explore how certain constructs of masculinity influence health seeking among intimate male sexual partners of female sex workers in Kampala, Uganda. Martin is investigating how long-term male sexual partners of female sex workers perceive their position as men within the context of a relationship in which they share their partners with others; exploring how the construction of masculinity by non-commercial male sexual partners of FSW presents barriers and opportunities for access to HIV prevention and care services and assessing how female sex workers, make sense of their relationships with their non-commercial male sexual partners and what influence they have in their sexual partners’ uptake of HIV services. Martin has conducted an ethnographic study with 13 men, all of whom are in long term relationships with women who continue to sell sex to other men, in Kampala, Uganda.