Expert opinion

The opening match between Manchester Utd and Leicester City will look different to many Premier League fixtures this season. Not because of the 8pm Friday kick-off time but because it’s a fixture where the two teams involved do not have a gambling company as their primary shirt sponsor, something nine of this year’s 20 Premiership teams have.
Currently there are no therapeutic drugs against the disease and existing licensed vaccines are only partially effective and have complex eligibility requirements. As a result, efforts to stop dengue have been targeted at Aedes aegypti - its day-biting, urban dwelling mosquito vector.
If everyone living with HIV takes an HIV test and knows their status, and if everyone with an HIV-positive test begins antiretroviral therapy (ART) HIV treatment rapidly, this enhances their chance of living a healthy life into old age. That treatment can also reduce the amount of virus in a person’s body to such a low level that they will not pass the virus on to others.
September 2018 will see an important and unprecedented step in the fight against TB – the first ever UN General Assembly high-level meeting on TB will take place and strengthen action and investment towards ending TB. However, there is a long way to go before ambitious World Health Organization (WHO) targets to reduce TB deaths by 95% from 2015 levels can be reached.
For the past thirty years the NHS, like all health care systems in high income countries, has sought improvements in the quality of its services and its productivity through increased assessment and greater accountability to the public.
“I wouldn’t be here today if it were not for the NHS”. This was Professor Steven Hawking’s response to an American newspaper which used him as an example to highlight the deficiencies of the NHS writing, ‘People such as scientist Stephen Hawking wouldn't have a chance in the UK, where the National Health Service would say the life of this brilliant man, because of his physical handicaps, is essentially worthless’.
Left untreated gonorrhoea can cause serious and permanent health problems in both women and men. Over many decades, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the bacterium that causes gonorrhoea, has successively developed resistance to each class of antibiotics recommended for treatment and treatment options are becoming depleted  - a worrying prospect given that an estimated 78 million people are infected with gonorrhoea each year globally.  
In the 1970s and 1980s, I remember seeing images of Vietnamese people fleeing violence in their country (the war and later on ethnic tensions) by sea. Around 800,000 people are known to have found refuge in neighbouring countries between 1975 and 1985. At an international conference in 1979 south-east Asian countries agreed to temporarily admit these ‘boat people’ and western countries agreed to assume most of the costs of caring for the boat people and to resettle them in their countries
Nearly seventy years after its creation, women are beginning to occupy more and more leadership roles in the NHS, however this has not always been the case.
NHS at 70 – the modern hospital has evolved considerably, but what service innovations are still needed in response to a continued change in demand?