Expert opinion

This year we sadly lost many esteemed colleagues and friends.
Clostridium difficile often referred to as C. difficile is a leading cause of healthcare-acquired infections, with more 38,000 reported cases in 2017 and over 3000 deaths. This equates to one person dying from the infection every two hours in our hospitals. It is a bacterial infection which resides in the intestines of humans. The bacteria can be found harmlessly living in one in every 30 adults, but these bacteria are usually balanced out by hundreds of other healthy bacteria in our stomachs. These healthy bacteria prevent C.
We’ve all heard the statistics—intimate partner violence (IPV) is one of the most pervasive forms of violence globally: one in every three women aged 15 years and over is estimated to experience physical and/or sexual violence by a partner in her lifetime.
Since the earliest days of the epidemic, community-based programs have been at the heart of the AIDS response. Many of these are funded, designed, and implemented by highly-trained individuals from high-income countries, with marginal input from local communities. Yet it is the local communities who often know what would be feasible and culturally appropriate. So what options are there to turn the conventional paradigm upside down and invite greater feedback from local communities on health programs?
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria is undoubtedly part of his legacy. It was at a special summit of Heads of State of the Organisation of African Unity in Abuja in April 2001 that Kofi Annan called for a “war chest” to fight AIDS and other major infectious diseases that particularly affect Africa.
Despite widespread media attention, repeated public health alerts, and the US President’s declaration of the opioid overdose epidemic as a ‘public health emergency’, fatal overdoses continue to rise.
Glyphosate (Roundup) is one of the most commonly used herbicides in the world, and in most countries is available to the general public – you can buy it in the UK at your local garden centre. More court cases are pending in the USA, and similar cases in other countries are likely to follow.
The opening match between Manchester Utd and Leicester City will look different to many Premier League fixtures this season. Not because of the 8pm Friday kick-off time but because it’s a fixture where the two teams involved do not have a gambling company as their primary shirt sponsor, something nine of this year’s 20 Premiership teams have.
Currently there are no therapeutic drugs against the disease and existing licensed vaccines are only partially effective and have complex eligibility requirements. As a result, efforts to stop dengue have been targeted at Aedes aegypti - its day-biting, urban dwelling mosquito vector.
If everyone living with HIV takes an HIV test and knows their status, and if everyone with an HIV-positive test begins antiretroviral therapy (ART) HIV treatment rapidly, this enhances their chance of living a healthy life into old age. That treatment can also reduce the amount of virus in a person’s body to such a low level that they will not pass the virus on to others.