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LINEA: Learning Initiative on Norms, Exploitation and Abuse

LINEA

Learning Initiative on Norms, Exploitation and Abuse. Exploring the potential of communities and social norms to prevent violence against and exploitation of children and adolescents.

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About the project

LINEA is an international, multi-pronged project testing how social norm theory can be used to reduce the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents (SECA) in regions across the world.

Who we are

Click here to find out who works on the LINEA project.

Publications

With the second phase of LINEA now in full swing, expect to see more resources and publications posted here soon.

Forthcoming LINEA Webinars

You can watch previous LINEA Webinars on the LINEA YouTube Channel.

About
About LINEA
About LINEA
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The Learning Initiative on Norms, Exploitation and Abuse (LINEA) is an international and multi-pronged project exploring how social norm theory can be used to prevent the sexual abuse and exploitation of children and adolescents globally. Centring adolescent girls, LINEA aims to provide an alternative to research and programmes, which have traditionally focussed on providing girls with skills and information. Instead, LINEA aims to better understand and address the interdependence of human behaviour and the structural realities that shape the individual experience of adolescent girls. LINEA was established in 2014 and is nested within Gender Violence and Health Centre (GHVC) at LSHTM.

There are three key streams of LINEA’s work which are as follows:

Contributing to conceptual clarity and theory

LINEA is working towards gaining deeper conceptual clarity around the issues of sexual exploitation and abuse of young people. This includes two desk reviews, the first of which reviews how child sexual exploitation has been defined and conceptualised over time by researchers, practitioners and international bodies. The second considers existing evidence about how social norms and other structural factors may contribute to the sexual exploitation of children. LINEA is also collaborating with partners to develop and refine a conceptual model of child sexual exploitation and its drivers.

Producing evidence for preventing social norms and sexual exploitation of children and adolescents

LINEA has conducted research with adolescent and adult community members in Tanzania and Uganda to examine the norms, expectations and contexts that shape and perpetuate the practice of transactional sex. Through individual interviews and focus group discussions, we are seeking to better understand how transactional sex is understood and conceptualised, and when and if transactional sex is considered “exploitative.”

This research is being used to inform the development of an exciting new multi-component social norms focussed intervention. Using a curriculum and media based approach; the intervention aims to prevent sexual exploitation of children in Tanzania due to transactional sex between older men and adolescent girls.

LINEA has also been conducting research in partnership with Promundo, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Again, the aim is to uncover the norms both fostering and preventing transactional sex relationships in three of Rio’s favela communities. This research is the first of its kind in Brazil, not only due to the subject matter, but also in that it will generate a new scale on Sexual Exploitation Norms (SEN) to measure social norms associated with sexual exploitation of children and adolescents.

Creating a community of practice: The LINEA Network

LINEA hosts a network of partners in research, programming, policy, advocacy and funding who are using a social norms approach to prevent sexual exploitation and abuse of young people. It is a vibrant and open forum for groups and individuals engaging with, or interested in learning about, norms and structural factors driving vulnerability. The LINEA Network hosts regular webinars, providing a platform for the most cutting edge research and initiatives. The Network also organises biennial meetings where selected participants can share their insights and share them within the community of practice.

You can register to be a member of the network here. To watch previous LINEA webinars visit the LINEA YouTube Channel. Find other resources from the LINEA Network on our resource page.

You can find more information about LINEA in this introductory webinar:

Who we are
Who we are LINEA

Ana
Buller

Assistant Professor
Principal Investigator (LSHTM)

Ana Maria has led all aspects of LINEA since it started, as the project’s Principle Investigator. She is also the Deputy Director of the Gender Violence and Health Centre.

Marie-Celine
Schulte

Research Fellow
Research Fellow (LSHTM)

Marie-Celine coordinates intervention development and leads field-testing in Tanzania for LINEA prevention of exploitation of adolescent girls in transactional sex. Contact her to learn more!

Lottie
Howard-Merrill

Research Assistant
Research Assistant (LSHTM)

Lottie supports the field-testing and development of the LINEA Intervention and leads communications for the LINEA Network. Get in touch to learn more!

Principal Investigator in Uganda (LSHTM)

Nambusi is the Principle Investigator for LINEA’s formative research on transactional sex in Uganda. She is a member of the Gender Violence and Health Centre at LSHTM.

Dr Joyce Wamoyi

Principal Investigator in Tanzania (NIMR, Tanzania)

Joyce is the Principle Investigator for the formative research on transactional sex in Tanzania. She works at the National Institute for Medical Research in Mwanza, Tanzania.

Senior Advisor on Exploitation Theory (LSHTM)

Cathy provides expertise as LINEA’s senior advisor on exploitation theory. She is a member of the Gender Violence and Health Centre at LSHTM.

Beniamino
Cislaghi

Assistant Professor
Senior Advisor on Social Norms (LSHTM)

Ben contributes social norms expertise to LINEA’s work. He is a member of the Gender Violence and Health Centre at LSHTM.

Publications
Publications LINEA
Second LINEA Meeting Report: From Research to Social Change: Exploring Possibilities for Preventing Sexual Exploitation of Children Using a Social Norms Perspective
This report details the key presentations from the meeting, and subsequent discussion. Follow links in the documents to view the presentations.
2017
Report – Inaugural Meeting: Learning Initiative on Norms, Exploitation and Abuse
The report details the key presentations, and subsequent discussion from LINEA’s Inaugural Meeting, held in Cumberland Lodge, Windsor, UK, 30 March-1 April 2015. Follow links in the documents to view the presentations and videos.
2015
1st LINEA Meeting (2015)
Inaugural LINEA Meeting (2015)

The agenda below links to presentations and video from LINEA’s Inaugural Meeting, held in Cumberland Lodge, Windsor, UK, 30 March-1 April 2015.

The Learning Initiative on Norms, Exploitation and Abuse (LINEA) is led from the Gender Violence and Health Centre (GVHC) at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM). To join the network, register here. To watch LINEA webinars, visit the LINEA Channel.

Read the full LINEA Meeting report here.

Here’s the full agenda from the meeting, with links to slides and selected videos.

Monday, 30 March 2015

Welcome, Goals of the Meeting & Introductions
Lori Heise, LSHTM

Overview of the LINEA Project and Network
Ana Maria Buller, LSHTM

State of the Evidence on Preventing and Responding to Sexual Exploitation of Children
Lorraine Radford, University of Central Lancashire 

The state of evidence on preventing and responding to the sexual exploitation of children

Click to watch Lorraine Radford’s presentation 

Case Studies of Research on Sexual Exploitation of Children

Growing Up on the Streets: Girls’ Experiences of Sexual Exploitation
Lorraine van Blerk, University of Dundee

Growing up on the Streets

Click to watch Lorraine van Blerk’s presentation 

Learning about Children in Urban Slums: Findings from a Rapid Ethnographic Study of Two Urban Slums in Mombasa
Kathleen Kostelny, The Columbia Group for Children in Adversity

‘On the Right Track’: Intervention with Truck Drivers in Brazil
Anna Flora Werneck, World Childhood Foundation 

On the Right Track Program

Click to watch Anna Flora Werneck’s presentation 

Lightening Talks: Thoughts on Prevention

‘We Protect Children’ – Programme for Child Abuse Prevention and Certification of the Institutions Complying with the Standards for Child Protection
Katarzyna Makurak, Nobody’s Children Foundation

Thoughts on Sexual Violence Prevention from the ‘Our Voices’ Youth Advisors
Claire Cody, University of Bedfordshire

Involvement of Young People at Risk in Prevention of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children
Maia Rusakova, Stellit

The C.H.I.L.D. Protection Hub for South East Europe – a Creative Hub for Interactive Learning and Development
Sendrine Constant, Terre des Hommes

Tuesday, 31 March 2015

Social Norm Theory and Social Change

Overview of norm theory
Lori Heise, LSHTM 

Overview of norm theory

Click to watch Lori Heise’s presentation

Discriminatory Social Norms and Institutions, Adolescent Girls and Gender Justice
Caroline Harper, ODI 

Capture

Click to watch Caroline Harper’s presentation

Applied Examples and Deducing Norms from Qualitative Data
Ben Cislaghi, Tostan

Small Group Work: Applying norms to sexual exploitation examples

Transactional Sex: Boundaries between Agency and Exploitation

Understanding and Conceptualising Transactional Sex in sub-Saharan Africa
Kirsten Stoebenau, International Centre for Research on Women

Emerging Findings from Tanzania Study on Social Norms and Transactional Sex
Joyce Wamoyi, National Medical Research Institute of Tanzania

Cross-generational and Transactional Sexual Relations in Uganda: Income poverty as a Risk Factor for Adolescents
Grace Bantebya, Makerere University 

Cross-generational and transactional sexual relations in Uganda: Income poverty as a risk factor for adolescents

Click to watch Grace Bantebya’s presentation 

Participatory Exercise: Considering scenarios

Panel:  Defining Exploitation    

Defining Sexual Exploitation: The Need for Common Language
Clara Sommarin, UNICEF

Competing Paradigms on the Sexual Exploitation of Children, and a Draft Conceptual Model
Rebecca Meiksin and Ana Maria Buller, LSHTM

Complexities of working with older adolescents
Joanna Busza, LSHTM 

Small Group Discussions: Discussions of paradigms, conceptual boundaries, and choosing words fit for purpose. Do we need consensus definitions?

Overview of protocols for Wednesday’s discussions

  • Social Norms and Child Sexual Exploitation by Men: Protocol for piloting an exploratory field study Patti Petesch, Independent Researcher
  • Social Norms and Sexual Exploitation in Brazil: Draft of a study in four communities in Rio Vanessa Fonseca and Giovanna Lauro, Promundo

Wednesday, 1 April 2015

Competing Notions of Childhood
Afua Twum-Danso Imoh, Department of Sociological Studies, University of Sheffield

Panel: Child Domestic Labour and Sexual Exploitation

Introduction to Vulnerabilities of Child Domestic Workers; Resilience in Child Domestic Workers Facing Sexual Exploitation
Helen Veitch, Children Unite and Oak Foundation

Child Domestic Labour and Sexual Exploitation in Ethiopia: The Role of Brokers
Hanan Nourhussein, Population Council – Ethiopia

Observations from the Field: Young Female Domestic Workers’ Health and Wellbeing in Delhi
Jenny Svensson, PhD candidate at LSHTM

Small Group Discussions: To workshop individual research studies

Parallel Sessions on Methods

  1. Exploring Methods to Measure/Track Social Norms

Session leaders: How V4C is measuring social norms Julian Barr and Emeka Nwankwo, Voices for ChangeSocial norms and community-based care programming in humanitarian settings: Sexual violence against women and girls affected by conflict Nancy Glass, Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing 

  1. Ethics in Research with Children

Session leaders: Safeguarding children in research Mark Capaldi, ECPAT InternationalEthics in research with children Nambusi Kyegombe, LSHTM

  1. Participatory Methods for Data Collection

Session leaders: Lorraine van Blerk (University of Dundee) and Helen Veitch (Children Unite, and Oak Foundation)

Small Group Discussions: Participants divide into 3 groups to develop recommendations on the following topics:

  1. Important next steps for researching sexual exploitation
  2. What do we need/want from the LINEA Network?
  3. Topics for skills development, methodological research, and/or webinars
2nd LINEA Meeting (2017)
Second LINEA Meeting

Welcome to the resource page for LINEA’s second biennial meeting entitled: ‘From Research to Social Change: Exploring Possibilities for Preventing Sexual Exploitation of Children Using a Social Norms Perspective’. The meeting was held on the 16th – 18thOctober, 2017 in Windsor, UK.

To read the meeting report, please click here. See below for the meeting agenda with links to presentations where available.

Day 1 – Monday 16th October

Update on LINEA: What has changed since the last meeting?

 

Welcome, goals of the meeting & introductions

(Ana Maria Buller, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine)

Insights from development of a social norms framework

(Ben Cislaghi, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine)

A systematic literature review on social norms and preventing sexual exploitation of children

(Marie-Celine Schulte, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine)

 

Update on LINEA: Findings from LINEA research

 

Social norms and motivations driving intergenerational transactional sex in Tanzania (Joyce Wamoyi, National Institute for Medical Research, Tanzania)

Tanzania Formative Research_LINEA Team, Social Norms Meta-Analysis
(Lottie Howard-Merrill, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine)

Social norms and sexual exploitation of children and adolescents in Brazil, preliminary findings from a qualitative study
(Victoria Page, Promundo, Brazil)

Panel and Q&AChild centred research, prevention and response to sexual exploitation of children and adolescents

 

Centring children in research to understand sexual exploitation
(Helen Veitch, University of Bedfordshire)

Multi-country evidence review of policies and programs to prevent and respond to online sexual exploitation of children
(Clara Sommarin, UNICEF) 

The C.H.I.L.D. Protection Hub for South East Europe- a Creative Hub for Interactive Learning and Development
(Judit Németh-Almasi, Terre des Hommes)

Day 2 – Tuesday 17th October

Presentation and Q&A: Operationalising measurement of  social norm change 1

 

The Samata Intervention to reduce child marriage and school drop-out among adolescent girls in south India: Analysis of social norms data
(Tara Beattie, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine)

Measuring Social Norms Underpinning Intimate Partner Violence in Nepal
(Cari Clark, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University)

Presentation and Q&A: Operationalising measurement of  social norm change 2

 

COMPASS, Preventing Violence Against Conflict-Affected Girls_Measuring norms in Randomized Control Trials in DRC and Ethiopia
(Lindsay Stark, Child Protection in Crisis Learning Network, Columbia University)

Violence in adolescent’s lives_reflections on measuring norms and practices and intervening with boys to prevent violence
(KG Santhya, The Population Council)

Presentation and Q&A:Learning about and addressing social norms as they relate to gender power dynamics
(Amy Pennington, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation) 
Panel and Q&A: Process insights from applying social norms theory in intervention design

 

Highlights from CARE
(Leigh Stefanik, CARE USA)

Strengthening the Enabling Environment for Young Women’s Empowerment in Nigeria: Results and Learning from Voices for Change
(Claire Hughes, Caroline Enye, Elaine Denny (remotely), Itad)

How radio and outreach can change couples’ communication in Nepal
(Gemma Ferguson, Equal Access)

Day 3 – Wednesday 18th October 

Panel and Q&A: Adolescent girls development: putting evidence into practice

 

Insights from the implementation of DREAMS in Tanzania
(Anike Akridge, DREAMS, USAID)

Theories of agency and empowerment and the construction of ‘girlhood’ through development narratives
(Kate Pincock, Refugee Studies Centre, Oxford University)

Amani Girls Home adaptations of SASA! And Power to Girls in Mwanza, Tanzania
(Sono Revocatus, Amani Girls Home)

The Learning Initiative on Norms, Exploitation and Abuse (LINEA) is led from the Gender Violence and Health Centre (GVHC) at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM). To join the network, register here. To watch LINEA webinars, visit the LINEA Channel.