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Centre For Health Economics In London (CHIL)

We are a world-leading group of over 50 academics working on a diverse portfolio of health economics research. Our work ranges from developing innovative methods and empirical research to policy engagement and impact. We work across the globe in low, middle, and high income settings.

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About

Based in the Faculty of Public Health and Policy, the Centre For Health Economics In London (CHIL) acts as the central body for staff and students across the School who study or apply health economics.

Themes

Our research spans the field of health economics, including: Economic evaluation and priority setting, Evaluation of complex policy interventions, Health system financing and organization & Preferences and behaviour.

About
About CHIL 2 columns
About CHIL
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We are a world-leading group of over 50 academics working on a diverse portfolio of health economics research, with work ranging from the development of innovative methods and empirical research, to policy engagement and impact.

Members have strong national and international partnerships and a wealth of experience in advising UK and other national governments, international agencies, and organisations.

Overview

Based in the Faculty of Public Health and Policy, the Centre For Health Economics In London (CHIL) acts as the central body for staff and students across the School who study or apply health economics.

The Centre’s vision is forward-looking and emphasises cutting edge methodological development,  rigorous empirical research, and working alongside policy and decision-makers to achieve policy impact.  We seek to improve collaborations among economists and researchers in other disciplines at LSHTM and with research groups and policymakers in the UK and around the world. Centre members’ expertise places them at the forefront in building the capacity of health economists and their policy communities – and embracing respectful collaborations worldwide.

Our teaching programme includes research degrees and multiple masters degree programmes taught in London and through our distance learning programme.

LSHTM economists link to others through IHEA and the UK Health Economics Study Group.

 

Leadership

Director

Anna Vassall, Professor of Health Economics

Deputy Director

Andrew Briggs, Professor of Health Economics

 

Theme Leads

Economic evaluation and priority setting

Anna Vassall, Professor
John Cairns, Professor

Economics of health systems and organisations

Pauline Allen, Professor
Catherine Goodman, Professor

Policy evaluation

Richard Grieve, Professor
Timothy Powell-Jackson, Associate Professor
Ties Hoomans, Assistant Professor

Preferences and behaviour

Fern Terris-Prestholt, Associate Professor
Alec Miners, Associate Professor

Communication Committee

Melisa Martinez-Alvarez, Assistant Professor
Kara Hanson, Professor
Rosa LeGood, Associate Professor
Matthew Quaife, Research Fellow
Sergio Torres-Rueda, Research Fellow
Anna Vassall, Professor
Research
Research CHIL 2 columns
Research CHIL
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Our research spans the field of health economics, covering the four major themes of: economic evaluation and priority setting, policy evaluation, economics of health systems and organisations, and preference and behaviour.

Read more for overviews, areas of interest, relevant publications, and contact points for each theme:

Economic evaluation and priority setting

Overview of theme

The economic evaluation and priority setting group includes over 30 staff members and research degree students from different disciplines including economics, statistics, mathematical modelling and epidemiology. We work in close collaboration with research partners in the UK and several low and middle income countries.

Our work aims to improve health by informing policy, processes and approaches used to allocate resources across health systems in the UK and around the world. Our research draws on strengths in economic data collection, statistical analysis, valuation of health outcomes, and infectious disease modelling.

We value policy impact, and have long established partnerships with a wide range of both global and national policy makers. We regularly support and participate in advisory work, guideline development, national strategic planning and health technology assessment processes.

The theme leads are Anna Vassall and John Cairns.

Areas of active research

We work across a wide range of health topics, addressing both non-communicable and infectious disease burden. We apply and develop methods in the following areas:

  • Improving the statistical analysis of trial and non-trial data
  • Incorporating behaviour, demand and health systems considerations into economic evaluation
  • Designing frameworks for the economic evaluation of multi-sectoral intervention
  • Understanding and estimating costs and resource use
  • Incorporating societal perspective, including the measurement of economic impact
  • Use of capability and well-being methods in global health
  • Incorporating equity in priority settings
  • Evaluation of complex interventions
    • Economic evaluation of a complex intervention to reduce bullying in schools
  • Evaluating disease models in priority setting
    • Cost-effectiveness of population genetic testing for cancer prevention

Recent publications

Guerriero, C., Cairns, J., Bianchi, F. & Cori, L. (2018) Are children rational decision makers when they are asked to value their own health? A contingent valuation study conducted with children and their parents. Health Economics. 27(2):e55-e68.
Langham, S., Wright, A., Kenworthy, J., Grieve, R. & Dunlop, W.C.N. (2018) Cost-Effectiveness of Take-Home Naloxone for the Prevention of Overdose Fatalities among Heroin Users in the United Kingdom. Value in Health. 21(4):407-415.
Li, B., Miners, A., Shakur, H. & Roberts, I. (2018) Tranexamic acid for treatment of women with post-partum haemorrhage in Nigeria and Pakistan: A cost-effectiveness analysis of data from the WOMAN trial. The Lancet Global Health. 6(2):e222-e228.
Manchanda, R., Patel, S., Gordeev, V.S., Antoniou, A.C., Smith, S., Lee, A., Hopper, J.L., MacInnis, R.J., Turnbull, C., Ramus, S.J., Gayther, S.A., Pharoah, P.D.P., Menon, U., Jacobs, I. & Legood, R. (2018) Cost-effectiveness of Population-Based BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD51C, RAD51D, BRIP1, PALB2 Mutation Testing in Unselected General Population Women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djx265.
Sandmann, F.G., Robotham, J.V., Deeny, S.R., Edmunds, W.J. & Jit, M. (2018) Estimating the opportunity costs of bed-days. Health Economics. 27(3):592-605.
Torres-Rueda, S., et al. (2018) Cost and Cost-Effectiveness of a Demand Creation Intervention to Increase Uptake of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in Tanzania: Spending More to Spend Less. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001682
Hawkins, N. & Grieve, R. (2017) Extrapolation of Survival Data in Cost-effectiveness Analyses: The Need for Causal Clarity. Medical Decision Making. 37(4):337-339.
Pitt, C., Ndiaye, M., Conteh, L., Sy, O., Hadj Ba, E., Cissé, B., Gomis, J.F., Gaye, O., Ndiaye, J.L. & Milligan, P.J. (2017) Large-scale delivery of seasonal malaria chemoprevention to children under 10 in Senegal: an economic analysis. Health Policy and Planning. 32(9):1256-1266.
Remme, M., Martinez-Alvarez, M. & Vassall, A. (2017) Cost-Effectiveness Thresholds in Global Health: Taking a Multisectoral Perspective. Value in Health. 20(4):699-704.
Greco, G., Lorgelly, P. & Yamabhai I. (2016) Outcomes in Economic Evaluations of Public Health Interventions in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Health, Capabilities and Subjective Wellbeing. Health Economics. 25(1):83-94.
Menzies, N.A., Gomes, G.B., et al. (2016) Cost-effectiveness and resource implications of aggressive action on tuberculosis in China, India, and South Africa: a combined analysis of nine models. The Lancet Global Health. 4(11):e816-e826.
Sweeney, S., Vassall, A., Foster, N., Simms, V., Ilboudo, P., Kimaro, G., Mudzengi, D. & Guinness, L. (2016) Methodological Issues to Consider When Collecting Data to Estimate Poverty Impact in Economic Evalua tions in Low-income and Middle-income Countries. Health Economics. 25(1):42-52.
Vassall, A., Mangham-Jefferies, L., Gomez, G.B., Pitt, C. & Foster, N. (2016) Incorporating Demand and Supply Constraints into Economic Evaluations in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries. Health Economics. 25(1):95-115.
Wilkinson, T., Sculpher, M.J., Claxton, K., Revill, P., Briggs, A., Cairns, J.A., Teerawattananon, Y., Asfaw, E., Lopert, R., Culyer, A.J. & Walker, D.G. (2016) The International Decision Support Initiative Reference Case for Economic Evaluation: An Aid to Thought. Value in Health. 19(8):921-928.
Fernandes, S., Sicuri, E., Kayentao, K., van Eijk, A.M., Hill, J., Webster, J., Were, V., Akazili, J., Madanitsa, M., ter Kuile, F.O. & Hanson, K. (2015) Cost-effectiveness of two versus three or more doses of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a modelling study of meta-analysis and cost data. The Lancet Global Health. 3(3):e143-53.
Policy evaluation

Overview of theme

We aim to improve methods for policy evaluation, drawing heavily on approaches developed in economics, but also from related disciplines such as biostatistics and management science. The group’s expertise is in the development and application of quasi-experimental methods including matching, difference-in-differences, flexible regression, and synthetic control methods. Our focus is on applying these approaches to large-scale observational data to address questions of international policy-relevance in health.

We work closely with policy-makers in many different countries, and their requirements motivate our interests in methods development, which takes place in collaboration with a cross-disciplinary network of methodological experts.

The theme leads are Timothy Powell-Jackson and Richard Grieve.

Areas of active research

  • Investigation of synthetic control methods versus difference in difference estimation
  • Application of instrumental variable approaches for evaluating person-level treatment effects
  • Policy-relevant evaluations including of integrated care initiatives in the UK Value of implementation approaches
  • National evaluation of pay for performance in Brasil using quasi-experimental methods applied to linked administrative datasets
  • Large scale randomised controlled trial of a quality improvement and business intervention in private health facilities in Tanzania
  • Analysis of household scanner data on food and beverage expenditures to understand dietary behaviours and evaluation of likely health related food policy impacts

Recent publications

Quirmbach, D., Cornelsen, L., Jebb, S.A., Marteau, T. & Smith, R. (2018) Effect of increasing the price of sugar-sweetened beverages on alcoholic beverage purchases: an economic analysis of sales data. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. doi: 10.1136/jech-2017-209791.
Anselmi, L., Binyaruka, P. & Borghi. J. (2017) Understanding causal pathways within health systems policy evaluation through mediation analysis: an application to payment for performance (P4P) in Tanzania. Implementation Science. 12:10.
Lépine, A., Lagarde, M. Le Nestour, A. (2017) How effective and fair is user fee removal? Evidence from Zambia using a pooled synthetic control. Health Economics. 27:493–508.
Cornelsen, L., Mazzocchi, M., Green, R., Dangour, A.D. & Smith, R.D. (2016) Estimating the relationship between food prices and food consumption – methods matter. Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy. 38(3):546-51.
O’Neill, S., Kreif, N., Grieve, R.D., Sutton, M. & Sekhon, J.S. (2016) Estimating causal effects: considering three alternatives to difference-in-differences estimation. Health Services Research and Outcomes Methodology. 16(1-2):1-21.
Kreif, N., Grieve, R., Hangartner,D., Nikolova,S., Turner,A. & Sutton, M. (2015) Examination of the Synthetic Control Method for Evaluating Health Policies with Multiple Treated Units. Health Economics. 25: 1514–1528.
Powell-Jackson, T., Mazumdar, S. & Mills, A. (2015) Financial incentives in health: New evidence from India's Janani Suraksha Yojana. Journal of Health Economics. 43:154-69.
Steventon, A., Grieve, R. & Sekhon, J.S. (2015) A comparison of alternative strategies for choosing control populations in observational studies. Health Services Research and Outcomes Methodology. 15(3–4): 157–181.
Powell-Jackson, T. & Hanson, K. (2012) Financial incentives for maternal health: impact of a national programme in Nepal. Journal of Health Economics. 31(1):271-84.
Sekhon, J. & Grieve, R. (2012) A Matching Method for Improving Covariate Balance in Cost-Effectiveness Analyses. Health Economics. 21(6):695-714.
Economics of health systems and organisations

Overview of theme

The effective design and management of health systems poses many important economics questions, such as:

  • How should we finance health care?
  • What role should the government have in health care provision?
  • How should we regulate private providers?
  • How should we pay health care workers?

Our work involves the use of economic concepts, theories and insights to address these types of dilemmas. We use quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods to understand and analyse specific aspects of health system performance, and to support the design and evaluation of health system strategies and interventions. We study health care markets (e.g. competition and choice); non-market approaches (e.g. planning and regulation); healthcare financing (e.g. purchasing and provider payment), and resource allocation (e.g. rationing mechanisms). We draw on a wide range of economic theories, including principal-agency theory, transaction costs theory, new institutional economics, theory of yardstick competition, and theories of regulation.

Our work encompasses low, middle and high income countries and humanitarian settings. We investigate the variation across these health systems and their contexts, while also striving to identify common insights, and facilitate cross-country learning.

Theme members are also convenors of iHEA’s Special Interest Group on Financing for Universal Health Coverage.

The theme leads are Pauline Allen and Catherine Goodman.

Areas of active research

Healthcare markets and competition
Health system financing
  • Methods for tracking donor aid and domestic expenditure in low- and middle-income countries
  • Political economy of health system financing in low- and middle-income countries
  • Equity of health care financing in low- and middle-income countries
  • Evaluation of health systems’ financing impact on equity in Indonesia
Governance and regulation
Purchasing and provider payment
  • Evaluation of pay-for-performance for health facility staff in Tanzania
  • Health system effects of pay-for-performance in Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia and Brazil
  • Social Impact Bonds to fund innovative services in England
  • Financial incentives to improve quality of care in English healthcare providers
  • Different methods of pricing and risk allocation in the English NHS
Intra-organisational issues
  • How senior managers instil appreciation of organisational goals in front line staff
  • Staff motivation in not-for-profit organisations in England
  • Intra-agency incentives

Recent publications

Pitt,C., Grollman, C., Martinez-Alvarez, M., Arregoces, L., Borghi, J. (2018) Tracking aid for global health goals: a systematic comparison of four approaches applied to reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. Lancet Global Health. 6: e859-74.

Haemmerli, M., Santos, A., Penn-Kekana, L., Lange, I., Matovu, F., Benova, L., Wong, K.L.M. & Goodman, C. (2018) How equitable is social franchising? Case studies of three maternal healthcare franchises in Uganda and India. Health policy and planning. 33(3):411-419.
ACTwatch Group, Tougher, S., Hanson, K. & Goodman, C. (2017) What happened to anti-malarial markets after the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria pilot? Trends in ACT availability, price and market share from five African countries under continuation of the private sector co-payment mechanism. Malaria Journal. 16(1):173.
Allen, P., Osipovic, D., Shepherd, E., Coleman, A., Perkins, N. & Williams, L. (2017) Commissioning through competition and cooperation in the English NHS under the Health and Social Care Act 2012: Evidence from a qualitative study of four clinical commissioning groups. BMJ Open. 7(2):e011745.
Miller, R. & Goodman, C. (2017) Do chain pharmacies perform better than independent pharmacies? Evidence from a standardised patient study of the management of childhood diarrhoea and suspected tuberculosis in urban India. BMJ Global Health. 2(3):e000457.
Moran, V., Allen, P., McDermott, I., Checkland, K., Warwick-Giles, L., Gore, O., Bramwell, D. & Coleman, A. (2017) How are Clinical Commissioning Groups managing conflicts of interest under primary care co-commissioning in England? A qualitative analysis. BMJ Open. 7(11): e018422.
Moran, V. & Jacobs, R. (2017) Costs and Performance of English Mental Health Providers. Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics. 20(2):83-94.
Sanderson, M., Allen, P., Gill, R. & Garnett, E. (2017) New models of contracting in the public sector: a review of alliance contracting, prime contracting and outcome based contracting literature. Social Policy and Administration DOI: 10.1111/spol.12322.
Sanderson, M., Allen, P. & Osipovic, D. (2017) The regulation of competition in the NHS - what difference has the Health and Social Care Act 2012 made? Health Economics Policy and Law. 12(1):1-19.
Tougher, S., Dutt, V., Pereira, S., Haldar, K., Shukla, V., Singh, K., Kumar, P., Goodman, C. & Powell-Jackson, T. (2017) Effect of a multifaceted social franchising model on quality and coverage of maternal, newborn, and reproductive health-care services in Uttar Pradesh, India: a quasi-experimental study. The Lancet Global Health. 6(2):e211–e221.
Allen, P. & Petsoulas, C. (2016) Pricing in the English NHS quasi market: a national study of the allocation of financial risk through contracts. Public Money and Management. 36(5):341-348.
Montagu, D. & Goodman, C. (2016) Prohibit, constrain, encourage, or purchase: how should we engage with the private health-care sector? The Lancet. 388:613-621.
Osipovic D. Allen P. Shepherd E. Coleman A. Perkins, N. Williams L. Sanderson M. Checkland K. (2016) Interrogating institutional change: actors’ attitudes to competition and cooperation in commissioning health services in England. Public Administration. 94(3): 823–838.

 

Preferences and behaviour

Overview of theme

Understanding people’s preferences as well as what determines the choices they make is critical for an efficient and effective healthcare system. This theme brings together researchers using classical and behavioural economic techniques to investigate and explain health decisions.

Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are a method to understand preferences for products and services. They can be used to estimate user valuations and predict uptake prior to implementation. These experiments are being adapted for rapid application within the formative research phase, in order to optimise trials and programming. Their uptake predictions are also being incorporated into cost-effectiveness models, as an improvement on mathematical modelling which has traditionally relied on expert opinion to estimate uptake in projecting the impact of new technologies.

Our group is undertaking DCEs to estimate these parameters in order to improve projections of uptake, and better understand how product attributes such as efficacy affect epidemiological impact and cost-effectiveness directly, and indirectly through increasing attractiveness.

Behavioural economics combines theories from economics and psychology to investigate and understand how people make choices. We are undertaking research that examines how cognitive biases, such as overconfidence, affect decisions made by healthcare providers. We also make use of randomised experiments to study how behavioural interventions can be used to improve quality of care. In addition, we are using it to optimise implementation science research, through changing choice architecture in HIV self-testing.

We are also convenors of iHEA’s Special Interest Group on Health Preference Research.

The theme leads are Fern Terris-Prestholt and Alec Miners.

Image map of research methods of preference and behaviour theme group.

Areas of active research

  • Using discrete choice experiments and revealed preference studies to design and evaluate interventions to improve health
    • Behavioural change interventions to reduce sexually transmitted infections
    • Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages
    • HIV self-testing in the UK, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe
    • Comparison of stated and revealed preferences for blood donation using big data and data adaptive model estimation
  • Assessing the role of discrete choice experiments and revealed preference studies in parametrising user uptake in economic evaluations
    • Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV
    • HIV self-testing

Recent publications

Miners, A., Llewellyn, C., King, C., Pollard, A., Roy, A., Gilson, R., Rodger, A., Burns., F. & Shahmanesh, M. (2018). Designing a brief behaviour change intervention to reduce sexually transmitted infections: a discrete choice experiment. International Journal of STD & AIDS, 0956462418760425.
Quaife, M., Terris-Prestholt, F., Di Tanna, G.L. & Vickerman, P. (2018) How well do discrete choice experiments predict health choices? A systematic review and meta-analysis of DCE external validity. European Journal of Health Economics. 1-14.
Quaife, M., et al. (2018) The cost-effectiveness of multipurpose HIV and pregnancy prevention technologies in South Africa. Journal of the International AIDS Society. 21:e25064.
SESH Study Team. (2017) Crowdsourcing to promote HIV testing among MSM in China: study protocol for a stepped wedge randomized controlled trial. Trials.18:447.
Quaife, M., Eakle, R., Cabrera-Escobar, M.A., Vickerman, P., Kilbourne-Brook, M., Mvundura, M., Delany-Moretlwe, S. & Terris-Prestholt, F. (2018). Divergent Preferences for HIV Prevention: A Discrete Choice Experiment for Multipurpose HIV Prevention Products in South Africa. Medical Decision Making. 38(1):120-133.
Indravudh, P.P., Sibanda, E.L., d'Elbée, M., Kumwenda, M.K., Ringwald, B., Maringwa, G., Simwinga, M., Nyirenda, L.J., Johnson, C.C., Hatzold, K., Terris-Prestholt, F. & Taegtmeyer, M. (2017) 'I will choose when to test, where I want to test': investigating young people's preferences for HIV self-testing in Malawi and Zimbabwe. AIDS. 31(3):S203-S212.
Wambura, M., Mahler, H., Grund, J.M., Larke, N., Mshana, G., Kuringe, E., Plotkin, M., Lija, G., Makokha, M., Terris-Prestholt, F., Hayes, R.J., Changalucha, J., Weiss, H.A. & VMMC-Tanzania Study Group. (2017) Increasing voluntary medical male circumcision uptake among adult men in Tanzania. AIDS. 31(7):1025-1034.
Quaife, M., Eakle, R., Cabrera, M., Vickerman, P., Tsepe, M., Delany-Moretlwe, S., Vickerman, P. & Terris-Prestholt, F. (2016) Preferences for ARV based HIV prevention methods among adult men and women, adolescent girls and female sex workers in Gauteng Province, South Africa: A protocol for a discrete choice experiment. BMJ Open. 6:e010682.
Tang, W. et al. (2016) Crowdsourcing HIV Test Promotion Videos: A Non-Inferiority Trial in China. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 62(11):1436-42.
Terris-Prestholt, F. & Windmeijer, F. (2016) How to Sell a Condom? The impact of demand creation tools on male and female condom sales in resource limited settings. Journal of Health Economics. 48:107-20.
Terris-Prestholt F, Quaife M, Vickerman P. (2016) Parameterising user uptake in economic evaluations: the role of discrete choice experiments. Health Economics. 1:116-23.

 

Each of these themes operate as sub-groups within CHIL, and are led by two or more LSHTM academics. Within them, researchers work on empirical and methodological developments, with particular interests in the following methods:

  • Causal inference approaches to provide accurate, relevant estimates of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new health care interventions.
  • Novel preference elicitation methods and discrete choice experiments
  • Study of health care markets
  • Incorporating constraints in economic evaluations
  • Equity analyses using dynamic demographic and transmission modelling
  • Willingness to pay thresholds for multi-sectoral interventions
  • Cost functions in data scarce environments
  • Standards in global health costing
  • Use of behavioural economics and demand analysis to inform intervention and trial design and parameterise uptake in economic evaluation models
  • Methods for tracking global and domestic resource flows for health
    Teaching
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    Training CHIL
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    Masters

    Health Economics courses are a core part of our Masters teaching in public health. Key to our teaching is the use of our research and policy experience within our teaching materials, featuring prominently in the following face-to-face courses in London:

    Distance learning

    We also have two distance learning courses:

    Economics MSc modules include “Introduction to Health Economics”, “Economic Analysis for Health Policy”, “Economic Evaluation”, and “The Economics of Global Health Policy”.

    Short courses

    We regularly offer short courses which are a great way to sharpen your skills and knowledge within health economics:

    Study with us

    If you are interested in undertaking research or studies on health economics at LSHTM, further details - including on the application process – are available for the face-to-face, distance learning, and research degree programmes. There is also advice on scholarship funding.

    For any other information on studying at LSHTM, please contact the Study Team.

    Members
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    Members CHIL
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    Research staff

    Anna Vassall
    Director of CHIL, Professor of Health Economics 
     

    Andrew Briggs
    Deputy Director of CHIL, Professor of Health Economics 

     

    Kaja Abbas 
    Assistant Professor of Disease Modelling
    Economic evaluation and priority setting

    Pauline Allen
    Professor of Health Services Organisation
    Health systems and organisation
    Katherine Atkins
    Associate Professor of Infectious Disease Modelling
    Economic evaluation and priority setting
    David Bath
    Research Fellow in Health Economics
    Economic evaluation and priority setting
    Preferences and behaviour
    Nicolas Berger
    Research Fellow
    Policy evaluation
    Preferences and behaviour
    Josephone Borghi
    Associate Professor of Health Economics and Policy
    Health systems and organisation
    Fiammetta Bozzani
    Research Fellow in Health Economics
    Economic evaluation and priority setting
    Health systems and organisation

    John Cairns
    Professor of Health Economics
    Economic evaluation and priority setting
    Preferences and behaviour

    Andrew Clark
    Associate Professor
    Economic evaluation and priority setting
    Laura Cornelsen 
    Assistant Professor of Public Health Economics
    Preferences and behaviour
    Policy evaluation
    Marc d'Elbee
    Research Fellow in Health Economics
    Economic evaluation and priority setting
    Preferences and behaviour

    Rosalind Eggo
    Assistant Professor
    Economic evaluation and priority setting
    Policy evaluation

    Camilla Fabbri
    Research Fellow
    Preferences and behaviour
    Policy evaluation

    Silke Fernandes
    Research Fellow in Health Economics
    Economic evaluation and priority setting

    Lucy Gilson
    Professor of Health Policy and Systems
    Gabriela Gomez 
    Associate Professor in Economics of Infectious Diseases
    Economic evaluation and priority setting

    Catherine Goodman 
    Professor of Health Economics and Policy
    Health systems and organisation

    Giulia Greco
    Assistant Professor of Health Economics
    Economic evaluation
    Policy evaluation
           

    Richard Grieve 
    Professor of Health Economics Methodology
    Policy evaluation
    Economic evaluation and priority setting

    Manon Haemmerli
    Research Fellow
    Health Systems and organisation

    Kara Hanson
    Professor of Health System Economics and Dean, Faculty of Public Health and Policy
    Policy evaluation
    Pitchaya Indravudh
    Research Fellow in Health Economics
    Preferences and behaviour
    Policy evaluation
    Mark Jit
    Professor of Vaccine Epidemiology
    Economic evaluation and priority setting
    Marcus Keogh-Brown
    Associate Professor in Economic Modelling
    Policy evaluation
    Economics of health systems and organisations
    Jessica King
    Research Fellow in Health Economics and Impact Evaluation
    Policy evaluation
    Health systems and organisation
    Roxanne Kovacs
    Research Fellow in Health Economics
    Preferences and behaviour
    Policy evaluation
    Yoko Laurence
    Research Fellow in Health Economics
    Economic evaluation and priority setting

    Cherry Law
    Research Fellow
    Preferences and behaviour
    Policy evaluation

    Rosa Legood
    Associate Professor of Health Economics
    Economic evaluation and priority Setting

    Melissa Martinez-Alvarez
    Assistant Professor
    Economic evaluation and priority Setting

    Alexina Mason
    Assistant Professor of Medical Statistics
    Economic evaluation
    Rosalind Miller
    Research Fellow
    Health systems and organisation
    Anne Mills
    Professor of Health Economics and Policy
    Health systems and organisation
    Economic evaluation and priority setting
    Alec Miners
    Associate Professor of Health Economics
    Preferences and behaviour
    Economic evaluation and priority setting
    Valerie Moran
    Research Fellow
    Health systems and organisations
    Policy evaluation
    Nichola Naylor
    Research Fellow
    Economic evaluation and priority setting
    Jason Ong
    Associate Professor (Hon)
    Economic evaluation and  Preferences and behaviour
    Catherine Pitt
    Assistant Professor of Health Economics and Policy
    Health systems and organisation
    Economic evaluation and priority setting
    Timothy Powell-Jackson
    Associate Professor of Health Economics
    Policy evaluation
    Health systems and organisation
    Simon Procter
    Research Fellow
    Economic evaluation and priority setting

    Matthew Quaife
    Assistant Professor 
    Economic evaluation and priority setting
    Preferences and behaviour

    Zia Sadique
    Assistant Professor of Health Economics
    Economic evaluation and priority setting
    Policy evaluation
    Marie Sanderson
    Research Fellow
    Health systems and organisations
    Frank Sandmann
    Research Fellow
    Economic evaluation and priority setting
    Neha Singh
    Assistant Professor
    Health systems and organisation Policy evaluation

    Sedona Sweeney
    Assistant Professor of Health Economics
    Economic evaluation and priority setting

    Stefanie Tan
    Research Fellow
    Health systems and organisation

    Henning Tarp-Jensen
    Associate Professor of Macroeconomics and Simulation Modelling

    Fern Terris-Prestholt
    Associate Professor in Economics of HIV
    Economic evaluation and priority setting
    Preferences and behaviour
    Sergio Torres Rueda
    Research Fellow in Health Economics
    Economic evaluation and priority setting

    Jack Williams
    Research Fellow in Health Economics
    Economic evaluation and priority setting   

    Virginia Wiseman
    Associate Professor
    Economic evaluation and priority setting
    Health systems and organisation

    Nichola Kitson
    Research Fellow
    Economic evaluation and priority setting
     
    Meghna Ranganathan
    Assistant Professor
    Policy evaluation
    Loveday Penn-Kekana
    Assistant Professor
    Health systems and organisation
     
    Julia Lohmann
    Research Fellow
     
     

    Honoraries

    Hannah-Rose Douglas
    Associate Professor
     
    Ulla Griffiths
    Associate Professor
    Economic evaluation and priority setting
    Lorna Guinness
    Associate Professor
    Economic evaluation and priority setting
    Aurelia Lepine 
    Assistant Professor 
    Policy evaluation
    Francisco Pozo-Martin
    Research Fellow
    Economic evaluation 
     

    Students

    Nikita Arora
    PhD Candidate
    Economic evaluation and priority setting
    Policy evaluation

    Henry Cust
    PhD candidate
    Preferences and behaviour
    Policy evaluation

    Frederik Federspiel
    PhD candidate
    Economics of health systems and organisations
    Rym Ghouma
    PhD candidate
    Preferences and behaviour
    Policy evaluation
    Darshini Govindasamy
    PhD candidate
    Policy evaluation 
    Justine Hsu
    PhD candidate
    Economic evaluation and priority setting
    Policy evaluation
    Heather Ingold
    PhD candidate
     
    Prabhdeep Kaur
    PhD candidate
    Jennifer Ljungqvist
    PhD candidate
    Rahab Mbau
    PhD candidate
    Economic evaluation and priority setting
    Halima Mohamed
    PhD candidate
    Dorota Osipovic
    PhD candidate
    Economics of health systems and organisations

    Suladda Pongutta
    PhD candidate

    Miguel Pugliese-Garcia
    PhD candidate
     
    Ian Ross
    PhD candidate
    Economic evaluation and priority setting
    Ahmad Salehi
    PhD candidate 
    Linda Sande
    PhD candidate
    Economic evaluation and priority setting
    Sarah Tougher
    PhD candidate

    Muntaqa Umar-Sadiq
    PhD candidate 

     

    Takuya Yamanuka
    PhD candidate 
     
    Publications
    Publications
    Publications CHIL 2 columns left paragraph
    Paragraph

    Economic evaluation and priority setting

    2020

    ABBAS, KM. ; VAN ZANDVOORT, K. ; Brisson, M. ; JIT, M. ; Effects of updated demography, disability weights, and cervical cancer burden on estimates of human papillomavirus vaccination impact at the global, regional, and national levels: a PRIME modelling study. The Lancet Global Health, (2020).8 (4), DOI: 10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30022-X. 

    BATH, D. ; GOODMAN, C. ; YEUNG, S. ; Modelling the cost-effectiveness of introducing subsidised malaria rapid diagnostic tests in the private retail sector in sub-Saharan Africa. BMJ Global Health, (2020).5 (5), DOI: 10.1136/bmjgh-2019-002138. 

    JIT, M. ; Ng, DH L. ; Luangasanatip, N. ; Sandmann, F. ; ATKINS, KE. ; Robotham, JV. ; Pouwels, KB. ; Quantifying the economic cost of antibiotic resistance and the impact of related interventions: rapid methodological review, conceptual framework and recommendations for future studies. BMC Medicine, (2020).18 (1), DOI: 10.1186/s12916-020-1507-2.

    Li, X. ; Willem, L. ; Antillon, M. ; Bilcke, J. ; JIT, M. ; Beutels, P. ; Health and economic burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease and the cost-effectiveness of potential interventions against RSV among children under 5 years in 72 Gavi-eligible countries. BMC Medicine, (2020).18 (1), DOI: 10.1186/s12916-020-01537-6. 

    MURPHY, A. ; PALAFOX, B. ; Walli-Attaei, M. ; POWELL-JACKSON, T. ; Rangarajan, S. ; Alhabib, KF. ; Avezum, AJ. ; Calik, KB T. ; Chifamba, J. ; Choudhury, T. ; Dagenais, G. ; Dans, AL. ; Gupta, R. ; Iqbal, R. ; Kaur, M. ; Kelishadi, R. ; Khatib, R. ; Kruger, IM. ; Kutty, VR. ; Lear, SA. ; Li, W. ; Lopez-Jaramillo, P. ; Mohan, V. ; Mony, PK. ; Orlandini, A. ; Rosengren, A. ; Rosnah, I. ; Seron, P. ; Teo, K. ; Tse, LA. ; Tsolekile, L. ; Wang, Y. ; Wielgosz, A. ; Yan, R. ; Yeates, KE. ; Yusoff, K. ; Zatonska, K. ; HANSON, K. ; Yusuf, S. ; McKee, M. ; The household economic burden of non-communicable diseases in 18 countries. BMJ Global Health, (2020).5 (2), DOI: 10.1136/bmjgh-2019-002040. 

    Prinja, S. ; Chauhan, AS. ; Rajsekhar, K. ; Downey, L. ; Bahuguna, P. ; Sachin, O. ; GUINNESS, L. ; Addressing the Cost Data Gap for Universal Healthcare Coverage in India: A Call to Action. Value in Health Regional Issues, (2020).21, 226-229. DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2019.11.003. 

    Roberts, K. ; Macleod, J. ; Metcalfe, C. ; Hollingworth, W. ; WILLIAMS, J. ; Muir, P. ; Vickerman, P. ; Clement, C. ; Gordon, F. ; Irving, W. ; Waldron, C-A. ; North, P. ; Moore, P. ; Simmons, R. ; MINERS, A. ; Horwood, J. ; Hickman, M. ; Cost effectiveness of an intervention to increase uptake of hepatitis C virus testing and treatment (HepCATT): cluster randomised controlled trial in primary care. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), (2020).368, m322-m322. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.m322. 

    SWEENEY, S. ; VASSALL, A. ; GUINNESS, L. ; Siapka, M. ; Chimbindi, N. ; Mudzengi, D. ; Gomez, GB. ; Examining Approaches to Estimate the Prevalence of Catastrophic Costs Due to Tuberculosis from Small-Scale Studies in South Africa. PharmacoEconomics, (2020).38 (6), DOI: 10.1007/s40273-020-00898-3. 

    Vogelzang, M. ; TERRIS-PRESTHOLT, F. ; Vickerman, P. ; Delany-Moretlwe, S. ; Travill, D. ; QUAIFE, M. ; Cost-Effectiveness of HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Among Heterosexual Men in South Africa: A Cost-Utility Modeling Analysis. JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 84 (2), DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000002327. 

    Yang, J. ; ATKINS, KE. ; Feng, L. ; Baguelin, M. ; Wu, P. ; Yan, H. ; Lau, EH Y. ; Wu, JT. ; LIU, Y. ; Cowling, BJ. ; JIT, M. ; Yu, H. ; Cost-effectiveness of introducing national seasonal influenza vaccination for adults aged 60 years and above in mainland China: a modelling analysis. BMC medicine, (2020).18 (1), DOI: 10.1186/s12916-020-01545-6. 

     

    2019

    Biddle, L. ; MINERS, A. ; Bozorgmehr, K. ; Cost-utility of screening for depression among asylum seekers: a modelling study in Germany. Health Policy, (2019).123 (9), DOI: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2019.05.011. 

    Cambiano, V. ; JOHNSON, CC. ; Hatzold, K. ; TERRIS-PRESTHOLT, F. ; Maheswaran, H. ; Thirumurthy, H. ; Figueroa, C. ; Cowan, FM. ; Sibanda, EL. ; Ncube, G. ; Revill, P. ; Baggaley, RC. ; CORBETT, EL. ; Phillips, A. ; For Working Group on Cost Effectiveness of HIV sel,; The impact and cost-effectiveness of community-based HIV self-testing in sub-Saharan Africa: a health economic and modelling analysis. Journal of the International AIDS Society, (2019).22 Sup (S1), DOI: 10.1002/jia2.25243. 

    Chen, C. ; Cervero Liceras, F. ; FLASCHE, S. ; Sidharta, S. ; Yoong, J. ; SUNDARAM, N. ; JIT, M. ; Effect and cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination: a global modelling analysis. LANCET GLOBAL HEALTH, (2019).7 (1), DOI: 10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30422-4. 

    DOWIE, J. ; Kaltoft, MK. ; Uncertainty-Adjusted Translation for Preference-Sensitive Decision Support. Studies in health technology and informatics, (2019).258, DOI: 10.3233/978-1-61499-959-1-174. 

    Drake, T. ; MEDLEY, G. ; VASSALL, A. ; Gomez, G. ; Equity, economic evaluation, and disease transmission modelling – 26-27th March 2018: Pre-meeting reviews. F1000Research (2019).DOI: 10.7490/f1000research.1116870.1. 

    Eaton, JW. ; TERRIS-PRESTHOLT, F. ; Cambiano, V. ; Sands, A. ; Baggaley, RC. ; Hatzold, K. ; CORBETT, EL. ; Kalua, T. ; Jahn, A. ; JOHNSON, CC. ; Optimizing HIV testing services in sub-Saharan Africa: cost and performance of verification testing with HIV self-tests and tests for triage. Journal of the International AIDS Society, (2019).22 Sup (S1), DOI: 10.1002/jia2.25237. 

    Hippner, P. ; SUMNER, T. ; HOUBEN, RM. ; Cardenas, V. ; VASSALL, A. ; BOZZANI, F. ; Mudzengi, D. ; Mvusi, L. ; Churchyard, G. ; WHITE, RG. ; Application of provincial data in mathematical modelling to inform sub-national tuberculosis program decision-making in South Africa. PloS one, (2019).14 (1), DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0209320. 

    Kaltoft, MK. ; DOWIE, J. ; Risk Classifications Interfere with Preference-Sensitive Decision Support. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, (2019).261, DOI: 10.3233/978-1-61499-975-1-217. 

    Mangenah, C. ; Mwenge, L. ; Sande, L. ; AHMED, N. ; D'ELBÉE, M. ; Chiwawa, P. ; Chigwenah, T. ; Kanema, S. ; Mutseta, MN. ; Nalubamba, M. ; Chilongosi, R. ; INDRAVUDH, P. ; Sibanda, EL. ; NEUMAN, M. ; Ncube, G. ; Ong, JJ. ; Mugurungi, O. ; Hatzold, K. ; JOHNSON, CC. ; AYLES, H. ; CORBETT, EL. ; Cowan, FM. ; Maheswaran, H. ; TERRIS-PRESTHOLT, F. ; Economic cost analysis of door-to-door community-based distribution of HIV self-test kits in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Journal of the International AIDS Society, (2019).22 Sup (S1), DOI: 10.1002/jia2.25255. 

    PEARSON, CA B. ; ABBAS, KM. ; CLIFFORD, S. ; FLASCHE, S. ; Hladish, TJ. ; Serostatus testing and dengue vaccine cost-benefit thresholds. Journal of The Royal Society Interface, (2019).16 (157), DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2019.0234. 

    Pillai, N. ; Foster, N. ; Hanifa, Y. ; Ndlovu, N. ; FIELDING, K. ; Churchyard, G. ; Chihota, V. ; GRANT, AD. ; VASSALL, A. ; Patient costs incurred by people living with HIV/AIDS prior to ART initiation in primary healthcare facilities in Gauteng, South Africa. PloS one, (2019).14 (2), DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0210622. 

    PULLAN, R. ; HALLIDAY, K. ; OSWALD, W. ; Mcharo, C. ; BEAUMONT, E. ; KEPHA, S. ; WITEK-MCMANUS, S. ; Gichuki, P. ; ALLEN, E. ; DRAKE, T. ; PITT, C. ; Matendechero, S. ; Gwayi-Chore, M-C. ; Anderson, R. ; Njenga, S. ; BROOKER, S. ; Mwandawiro, CS. ; Effects, equity, and cost of school-based and community-wide treatment strategies for soil-transmitted helminths in Kenya: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet, (2019).393 (10185), 2039-2050. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32591-1. 

    SUMNER, T. ; BOZZANI, F. ; Mudzengi, D. ; Hippner, P. ; HOUBEN, RM. ; Cardenas, V. ; VASSALL, A. ; WHITE, RG. ; Estimating the Impact of Tuberculosis Case Detection in Constrained Health Systems: An Example of Case-Finding in South Africa. American Journal of Epidemiology, (2019).188 (6), DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwz038. 

    SWEENEY, S. ; Ward, Z. ; PLATT, L. ; GUINNESS, L. ; Hickman, M. ; Hope, V. ; Maher, L. ; Iversen, J. ; Hutchinson, SJ. ; Smith, J. ; Ayres, R. ; Hainey, I. ; Vickerman, P. ; Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of existing needle and syringe programmes in preventing hepatitis C transmission in people who inject drugs. Addiction (Abingdon, England), (2019).114 (3), DOI: 10.1111/add.14519. 

    Turner, HC. ; Lauer, JA. ; Tran, BX. ; Teerawattananon, Y. ; JIT, M. ; Adjusting for Inflation and Currency Changes Within Health Economic Studies. Value in Health, (2019).22 (9), DOI: 10.1016/j.jval.2019.03.021. 

    Wilkinson, T. ; BOZZANI, F. ; VASSALL, A. ; Remme, M. ; Sinanovic, E. ; Comparing the Application of CEA and BCA to Tuberculosis Control Interventions in South Africa. Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis, (2019).10 (S1), DOI: 10.1017/bca.2019.2. 

    WILLIAMS, J. ; MINERS, A. ; Harris, R. ; Mandal, S. ; Simmons, R. ; Ireland, G. ; Hickman, M. ; Gore, C. ; Vickerman, P. ; Cost-Effectiveness of One-Time Birth Cohort Screening for Hepatitis C as Part of the National Health Service Health Check Program in England. Value in Health, (2019).22 (11), DOI: 10.1016/j.jval.2019.06.006. 

    Policy evaluation

    2020

    LAW, C. ; CORNELSEN, L. ; Adams, J. ; Pell, D. ; Rutter, H. ; White, M. ; Smith, R. ; The impact of UK soft drinks industry levy on manufacturers' domestic turnover. Economics & Human Biology, (2020).37, DOI: 10.1016/j.ehb.2020.100866. 

    LAW, C. ; CORNELSEN, L. ; Adams, J. ; Penney, T. ; Rutter, H. ; White, M. ; Smith, R. ; An analysis of the stock market reaction to the announcements of the UK Soft Drinks Industry Levy. Economics & Human Biology (2020).DOI: 10.1016/j.ehb.2019.100834. 

    O'Neill, S. ; Kreif, N. ; Sutton, M. ; GRIEVE, R. ; A comparison of methods for health policy evaluation with controlled pre-post designs. Health services research, (2020).55 (2), 328-338. DOI: 10.1111/1475-6773.13274. 

    Prinja, S. ; Chauhan, AS. ; Rajsekhar, K. ; Downey, L. ; Bahuguna, P. ; Sachin, O. ; GUINNESS, L. ; Addressing the Cost Data Gap for Universal Healthcare Coverage in India: A Call to Action. Value in Health Regional Issues, (2020).21, 226-229. DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2019.11.003.

     

    2019

    Bains, I. ; Choi, YH. ; Soldan, K. ; JIT, M. ; Clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of primary cytology versus human papillomavirus testing for cervical cancer screening in England. International journal of gynecological cancer, (2019).29 (4), DOI: 10.1136/ijgc-2018-000161.  

    Choumert‐Nkolo, J. ; CUST, H. ; Taylor, C. ; Using paradata to collect better survey data: Evidence from a household survey in Tanzania. Review of Development Economics, (2019).23 (2), DOI: 10.1111/rode.12583. 

    GRECO, G. ; Power, Social Exclusion and the “Good Life”: the Importance of Measuring What Really Counts. Journal of human development and capabilities, (2019).19 (4), DOI: 10.1080/19452829.2018.1522043. 

    Hammond, J. ; Mason, T. ; Sutton, M. ; Hall, A. ; MAYS, N. ; Coleman, A. ; ALLEN, P. ; Warwick-Giles, L. ; Checkland, K. ; Exploring the impacts of the 2012 Health and Social Care Act reforms to commissioning on clinical activity in the English NHS: a mixed methods study of cervical screening. BMJ Open, (2019).9 (4), DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024156. 

    JENSEN, HT. ; KEOGH-BROWN, MR. ; Shankar, B. ; Aekplakorn, W. ; Basu, S. ; Cuevas, S. ; DANGOUR, AD. ; Gheewala, SH. ; GREEN, R. ; JOY, EJ M. ; Rojroongwasinkul, N. ; Thaiprasert, N. ; Smith, RD. ; Palm oil and dietary change: Application of an integrated macroeconomic, environmental, demographic, and health modelling framework for Thailand. Food Policy, (2019).83, DOI: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2018.12.003. 

    LAW, C. ; GREEN, R. ; KADIYALA, S. ; Shankar, B. ; KNAI, C. ; BROWN, KA. ; DANGOUR, AD. ; CORNELSEN, L. ; Purchase trends of processed foods and beverages in urban India. Global Food Security, (2019).23, DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2019.05.007.

    RANGANATHAN, M. ; KNIGHT, L. ; ABRAMSKY, T. ; Muvhango, L. ; Polzer Ngwato, T. ; Mbobelatsi, M. ; FERRARI, G. ; Watts, C. ; Stöckl, H. ; Associations Between Women's Economic and Social Empowerment and Intimate Partner Violence: Findings From a Microfinance Plus Program in Rural North West Province, South Africa. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, (2019).34 (7), DOI: 10.1177/0886260519836952. 

    Economics of health systems and organisations

    2020

    Anselmi, L. ; Borghi, J. ; Brown, GW. ; Fichera, E. ; Hanson, K. ; Kadungure, A. ; KOVACS, R. ; Kristensen, SR. ; SINGH, NS. ; Sutton, M. ; Pay for Performance: A Reflection on How a Global Perspective Could Enhance Policy and Research. International Journal of Health Policy and Management (2020).DOI: 10.34172/ijhpm.2020.23. 

    Coutrot, IP. ; Smith, R. ; CORNELSEN, L. ; Is the rise of crowdfunding for medical expenses in the UK symptomatic of systemic gaps in health and social care?. JOURNAL OF HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH & POLICY (2020).DOI: 10.1177/1355819619897949. 

    Dennis, ML. ; Benova, L. ; GOODMAN, C. ; Barasa, E. ; Abuya, T. ; Campbell, OM R. ; Examining user fee reductions in public primary healthcare facilities in Kenya, 1997-2012: effects on the use and content of antenatal care. International Journal for Equity in Health, (2020).19 (1), DOI: 10.1186/s12939-020-1150-8. 

    Dingle, A. ; Schäferhoff, M. ; BORGHI, J. ; Lewis Sabin, M. ; Arregoces, L. ; MARTINEZ-ALVAREZ, M. ; PITT, C. ; Estimates of aid for reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health: findings from application of the Muskoka2 method, 2002-17. The Lancet. Global health, (2020).8 (3), e374-e386. DOI: 10.1016/s2214-109x(20)30005-x. 

    FRASER, A. ; TAN, S. ; Boaz, A. ; MAYS, N. ; Backing what works? Social Impact Bonds and evidence-informed policy and practice. Public Money and Management, (2020).40 (3), DOI: 10.1080/09540962.2020.1714303. 

    Kapologwe, NA. ; Kibusi, SM. ; BORGHI, J. ; Gwajima, DO. ; Kalolo, A. ; Assessing health system responsiveness in primary health care facilities in Tanzania. BMC health services research, (2020).20 (1), DOI: 10.1186/s12913-020-4961-9. 

    KOVACS, RJ. ; POWELL-JACKSON, T. ; Kristensen, SR. ; SINGH, N. ; BORGHI, J. ; How are pay-for-performance schemes in healthcare designed in low- and middle-income countries? Typology and systematic literature review. BMC health services research, (2020).20 (1), DOI: 10.1186/s12913-020-05075-y. 

    MARTINEZ-ALVAREZ, M. ; FEDERSPIEL, F. ; SINGH, NS. ; Schäferhoff, M. ; Lewis Sabin, M. ; Onoka, C. ; MOUNIER-JACK, S. ; BORGHI, J. ; PITT, C. ; Equity of resource flows for reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health: are those most in need being left behind?. BMJ, (2020).368, DOI: 10.1136/bmj.m305. 

    SANDERSON, M. ; ALLEN, P. ; Moran, V. ; McDermott, I. ; OSIPOVIC, D. ; Agreeing the allocation of scarce resources in the English NHS: Ostrom, common pool resources and the role of the state. Social Science and Medicine, (2020).250, DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.112888. 

    Wilson, R. ; Fraser, A. ; Kimmitt, J. ; TAN, S. ; McHugh, N. ; Lowe, T. ; Warner, M. ; Baines, S. ; Carter, E. ; Editorial: Whither Social Impact Bonds (SIBs): the future of social investment?. PUBLIC MONEY & MANAGEMENT, (2020).40 (3), 179-182. DOI: 10.1080/09540962.2020.1714287. 

     

    2019

    Asante, AD. ; Ir, P. ; Jacobs, B. ; Supon, L. ; LIVERANI, M. ; Hayen, A. ; Jan, S. ; WISEMAN, V. ; Who benefits from healthcare spending in Cambodia? Evidence for a universal health coverage policy. Health policy and planning, (2019).34 (Supple), DOI: 10.1093/heapol/czz011.

    CORNELSEN, L. ; BERGER, N. ; CUMMINS, S. ; Smith, RD. ; Socio-economic patterning of expenditures on 'out-of-home' food and non-alcoholic beverages by product and place of purchase in Britain. Social Science and Medicine, (2019).235, DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.112361. 

    Fang, H. ; Eggleston, K. ; HANSON, K. ; Wu, M. ; Enhancing financial protection under China's social health insurance to achieve universal health coverage. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), (2019).365, DOI: 10.1136/bmj.l2378. 

    FRASER, A. ; TAN, S. ; MAYS, N. ; To SIB or not to SIB? A comparative analysis of the commissioning processes of two proposed health-focused Social Impact Bond financed interventions in England. Journal of Economic Policy Reform (2019).DOI: 10.1080/17487870.2019.1572508. 

    HANSON, K. ; Barasa, E. ; Honda, A. ; Panichkriangkrai, W. ; Patcharanarumol, W. ; Strategic Purchasing: The Neglected Health Financing Function for Pursuing Universal Health Coverage in Low-and Middle-Income Countries Comment on "What's Needed to Develop Strategic Purchasing in Healthcare? Policy Lessons from a Realist Review". International Journal of Health Policy and Management, (2019).8 (8), DOI: 10.15171/ijhpm.2019.34. 

    Ir, P. ; Jacobs, B. ; Asante, AD. ; LIVERANI, M. ; Jan, S. ; Chhim, S. ; WISEMAN, V. ; Exploring the determinants of distress health financing in Cambodia. Health policy and planning, (2019).34 (Supple), DOI: 10.1093/heapol/czz006. 

    MANDEVILLE, KL. ; Barker, R. ; Packham, A. ; Sowerby, C. ; Yarrow, K. ; Patrick, H. ; Financial interests of patient organisations contributing to technology assessment at England’s National Institute for Health and Care Excellence: policy review. BMJ, (2019).364, DOI: 10.1136/bmj.k5300. 

    TAN, S. ; FRASER, A. ; McHugh, N. ; Warner, M. ; Widening perspectives on social impact bonds. Journal of Economic Policy Reform (2019).DOI: 10.1080/17487870.2019.1568249. 

    Preferences and behaviour 

    2020

    Accordion content 1.

    2019

    Choko, AT. ; CORBETT, EL. ; Stallard, N. ; Maheswaran, H. ; Lepine, A. ; JOHNSON, CC. ; Sakala, D. ; Kalua, T. ; Kumwenda, M. ; HAYES, R. ; FIELDING, K. ; HIV self-testing alone or with additional interventions, including financial incentives, and linkage to care or prevention among male partners of antenatal care clinic attendees in Malawi: An adaptive multi-arm, multi-stage cluster randomised trial. PLoS medicine, (2019).16 (1), DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002719. 

    CORNELSEN, L. ; Mazzocchi, M. ; Smith, RD. ; Fat tax or thin subsidy? How price increases and decreases affect the energy and nutrient content of food and beverage purchases in Great Britain. Social Science & Medicine, (2019).230, DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.04.003. 

    DOWIE, J. ; Kaltoft, MK. ; Translating the Results of Discrete Choice Experiments into p-/e-/m-Health Decision Support Tools. Studies in health technology and informatics, (2019).261, DOI: 10.3233/978-1-61499-975-1-193. 

    KOVACS, RJ. ; Lagarde, M. ; CAIRNS, J. ; Measuring patient trust: Comparing measures from a survey and an economic experiment. Health Economics, (2019).28 (5), DOI: 10.1002/hec.3870. 

    KUTEESA, MO. ; QUAIFE, M. ; Biraro, S. ; Katumba, KR. ; SEELEY, J. ; Kamali, A. ; Nakanjako, D. ; Acceptability and Predictors of Uptake of Anti-retroviral Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Among Fishing Communities in Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Discrete Choice Experiment Survey. AIDS and behavior, (2019).23 (10), DOI: 10.1007/s10461-019-02418-7. 

    Luyten, J. ; Kessels, R. ; ATKINS, KE. ; JIT, M. ; VAN HOEK, AJ. ; Quantifying the public's view on social value judgments in vaccine decision-making: A discrete choice experiment. SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE, (2019).228, DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.03.025. 

    ONG, JJ. ; Neke, N. ; Wambura, M. ; Kuringe, E. ; Grund, JM. ; Plotkin, M. ; D'ELBÉE, M. ; Torres-Rueda, S. ; Mahler, HR. ; WEISS, HA. ; TERRIS-PRESTHOLT, F. ; Use of Lotteries for the Promotion of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Service: A Discrete-Choice Experiment among Adult Men in Tanzania. Medical Decision Making, (2019).39 (4), DOI: 10.1177/0272989X19852095. 

    Sibanda, EL. ; D'ELBÉE, M. ; Maringwa, G. ; Ruhode, N. ; Tumushime, M. ; Madanhire, C. ; Ong, JJ. ; INDRAVUDH, P. ; Watadzaushe, C. ; JOHNSON, CC. ; Hatzold, K. ; Taegtmeyer, M. ; HARGREAVES, JR. ; CORBETT, EL. ; Cowan, FM. ; TERRIS-PRESTHOLT, F. ; Applying user preferences to optimize the contribution of HIV self-testing to reaching the "first 90" target of UNAIDS Fast-track strategy: results from discrete choice experiments in Zimbabwe. Journal of the International AIDS Society, (2019).22 Sup (S1), DOI: 10.1002/jia2.25245. 

    TERRIS-PRESTHOLT, F. ; Neke, N. ; Grund, JM. ; Plotkin, M. ; Kuringe, E. ; Osaki, H. ; Ong, JJ. ; TUCKER, JD. ; Mshana, G. ; Mahler, H. ; WEISS, HA. ; Wambura, M. ; VMMC study team,; Using discrete choice experiments to inform the design of complex interventions. Trials, (2019).20 (1), DOI: 10.1186/s13063-019-3186-x. 

     

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    COVID-19
    COVID-19 CHIL 2 columns
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    Paragraph

    On this page we will post links health economics work related to COVID-19 involving members of CHIL.

     

    In this post, Kaja Abbas outlines why routine immunisation remains essential, even during the COVID-19 pandemic and provides links to ongoing work.

    Routine immunisation is essential, even during the COVID-19 pandemic

    Kaja Abbas
    Assistant Professor of Disease Modelling
    May 15, 2020

    The COVID-19 pandemic has brought human activity to a standstill and now threatens to undermine routine immunisation programmes. On March 26, 2020, the World Health Organization recommended that while routine immunisation programmes should continue, mass vaccination campaigns should be temporarily suspended because they could increase the spread of the virus in communities. A benefit-risk analysis was conducted to weigh up the health benefits of continued routine infant immunisation delivery against the excess risk of COVID-19 infections in Africa. 

    The results are striking – if routine immunisation was continued, for each excess COVID-19 death (predominantly among elderly household members) due to an infection acquired during the vaccination visit and spread to household members of vaccinated children, around 14 to 267 future child deaths could be prevented. Without vaccination, these deaths could result from a range of diseases including measles, yellow fever, pertussis, meningitis, pneumonia, and diarrhoea. 

    If countries do decide to continue with routine immunisation during the COVID-19 pandemic, they will need to work out ways to reduce human contact. For example, between other families waiting or health care workers, or on public transport when travelling to the site. Vaccinators will be at high risk of infection because of the sheer numbers of people they will be coming into contact with and will need to maintain stringent standards of infection prevention such as wearing suitable personal protective equipment and frequent hand washing.

    In addition, whether or not a country suspends immunisation services, it will be critical for it to provide catch-up immunisations for any children who missed their vaccines due to the disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Please find the links below for the full report (currently under peer-review) and related dissemination.

     
    Here, Andrew Briggs discusses moving beyond ‘lives-saved’ from COVID-19 and provides links to a spreadsheet tool that can be used to calculate QALYs lost.
    Moving beyond ‘lives-saved’ from COVID-19

    Andrew Briggs
    Professor of Health Economics
    May 15, 2020

    Epidemiological models of the COVID-19 pandemic have largely focused their efforts on exploring the effectiveness of different policies to prevent deaths and to avoid overloading the ability of health care systems to handle the onslaught of cases. As we move from an extended period of lockdown to easing restrictions, it is a good time to think about moving beyond the simple metric of ‘lives-saved’. In other less challenging times, years of life lost (YLL) and Disability-Adjusted Life Years lost (DALYs) or Quality-Adjusted Years of Life lost (QALYs) are the more usual policy tool.

    Yet even conditional life-expectancy is poorly understood. Examples abound where supposed life expectancy is ‘estimated’ by subtracting current age from life expectancy at birth (not to pick on anyone in particular – but see this tweet about an article by Vince Cable which raises useful issues but falls into this exact trap). This is surprising, as conditional life expectancy (by age and sex) are routinely compiled by almost all countries in the world using standard life table methods.

    In this short blog we outline a policy tool that can be easily employed to generate YLL and (discounted) QALYs lost due to deaths from COVID-19 in a way that facilitates adjustment for comorbidities, while putting pay to the conventional wisdom that suggests that victims who are old and with long term conditions ‘would have died anyway’ (see for this article for example).

    The approach itself involves a three-step process to adapt a standard life table:

    1. Add a Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) parameter to allow for increased mortality due to existing long-term conditions (LE).
    2. Adjust survival for background quality of life and the additional quality of life decrement associated with the long-term conditions (QALE).
    3. Discount to a net-present value (dQALY).

    Full details of the method can be found in this accompanying technical note and the method is implemented for (currently) five countries in this spreadsheet tool.

    Some results from the approach are below. Table 1 shows the estimates based on UK data and Table 2 shows the equivalent estimates for US data. The underlying life tables come from ONS and CDC. The age distributions at death for COVID-19 victims also comes from ONS and CDC (these are being updated on a weekly basis and so the results below may not be the most contemporary estimates). Finally, the background norm quality of life data comes from chapter 3 of the book published by members of the EuroQol Group.

    What we see from the comparison of the UK and US results is that the conditional life expectancies are broadly comparable and it is clear that even with a SMR of 2 and a 10% reduction on quality of life for the remainder of life to adjust for comorbidities, the life expectancy and (discounted) QALY losses remain substantial for all age groups. Small differences between the UK and the US relate to the data sources, but by far the most important difference is the pattern of age at death from COVID-19 between the two countries. These are illustrated in Figure 1 showing that the UK has a relatively higher proportion of older victims of COVID-19.

    How might this approach be utilised? Apart from showing that it is unlikely, at least for most victims, that they would have succumbed to their long-term conditions in any case, the approach outlined can be used to explore the wider implications of the COVID-19 pandemic. For example, excess deaths have been widely reported and this approach could be used to explore whether the burden of excess deaths is greater than those from COVID itself.

    An earlier version of this blog was highlighted in the linked article from the WSJ, although the focus of the article was on years of life lost without quality adjustment.   More recently, a presentation based on this material was given as part of the ISPOR pre-conference plenary session on HEOR in the era of COVID-19 which was held on 14 May 2020. The video for the full session, including the panel of which this presentation was a part, can be found on the ISPOR website and you can also download a copy of the slides presented.

     

     

    Updates
    Updates
    Personal tributes to Adam Wagstaff (May 3, 1959 – May 10, 2020)

    Adam Wagstaff was a valued colleague, mentor and friend to many at the School. Here colleagues reflect on what made their acquaintance with Adam so special.

    “I have known Adam for many years, but had the pleasure of working closely with him when I was Past President of iHEA, and he was President elect. Along with Terkel Christiansen, the President, we planned and managed the transition of iHEA from their Founding Executive Director to a new Executive Director and new arrangements for the secretariat function.

    It was a huge pleasure to work with Adam – he had the ability to go to the heart of an issue, and to ask the hard questions. More generally, he was a giant in the field of health economics, contributing cutting edge analysis but always with an eye to policy implications. He will be very much missed.”

    Anne Mills, Deputy Director and Provost

     

    “I became familiar with Adam’s work when I was a PhD student, but I think the first time I met him was at a meeting on Health Equity, which took place at an eco-resort in Patagonia in 1999 and requiring an epic journey by plane, bus and boat.  He was an exceptional researcher, visionary in his application of health economics to real world problems, but unfailingly kind and generous with his time and ideas.  No request for help would ever go unreplied. Our world is emptier without him.”

    Kara Hanson, Dean, Faculty of Public Health & Policy

     

    “Adam was my tutor at Sussex, and his genuine interest in students, the clarity of his teaching and his expectations, meant that I was privileged to get a decent economics education. A year or so after I left university, at a time where there were few opportunities, he spent the time to listen to my confused ambitions, guide me and write me a great reference, that started my health economics career. So thanks to him I had my chance and my motivation. A very kind man.”

    Anna Vassall, Director, CHIL

     

    “When I joined Sussex University as an undergraduate, I was assigned Adam as my personal tutor. He was the youngest member of faculty, and truly embodied the ‘hip to be square’ philosophy. While we were having fun enjoying the ‘social’ side of undergraduate life, he was advocating 40-hour weeks and turning up to his classes on time (“Briggs, you need to buy yourself an alarm clock”). Adam inspired hard work and dedication to your subject, the sort of inspiration I desperately needed as an 18 year-old starting university.”

    Andy Briggs, Deputy Director, CHIL

     

    “Over the years I’ve been hugely inspired and influenced by Adam’s work. He was a superb communicator. Apart from his academic work, I used to enjoy reading his World Bank blogs, in which he would unpick difficult issues in a forensic and easy-to-understand manner. On the few occasions I met him, he was always supportive of my work, going out of his way to offer constructive advice. Above all else, he came across a decent person.”

    Tim Powell-Jackson, Associate Professor

    More tributes can be read in Adam's obituary