William Oswald


Assistant Professor


Keppel Street
United Kingdom

I am an infectious disease epidemiologist interested in the roles of sanitation, hygiene, and water for the control of neglected tropical diseases. I am currently working on the TUMIKIA Project to evaluate the impact of alternative deworming delivery and treatment strategies on soil-transmitted helminth infection in Kenya. I am also the global data systems lead for DeWorm3.

I have a Bachelor’s degree in history from Kenyon College and a Master of Health Science degree from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. I completed my PhD in Epidemiology at Emory University.


Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases
Department of Disease Control


My research focuses on the influence of context upon both behaviours and diseases related to sanitation, hygiene, and water. For my PhD, I used multilevel modelling of trachoma impact survey data from Amhara Region, Ethiopia to examine the effect of community sanitation levels on active trachoma and soil-transmitted helminth infections in children. Also, using a geographic information system to combine survey data with compiled information on environmental and sociodemographic factors, I examined their relationships with community levels of sanitation. My earlier research in Lima, Peru examined the influence of water and sanitation availability in periurban households upon mothers’ handwashing behaviour at critical moments.

Research Area
Child health
Public health
Behaviour change
Disease control
Environmental Health
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
Global Health
Impact evaluation
Implementation research
Qualitative methods
Spatial analysis
GIS/Spatial analysis
Disease and Health Conditions
Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)
Tropical diseases
Soil-transmitted helminths
Latin America & Caribbean (developing only)
Sub-Saharan Africa (developing only)

Selected Publications

Dynamics of individual adherence to mass drug administration in a conditional probability model
Hardwick RJ; Truscott JE; Oswald WE; Werkman M; Halliday KE; Pullan RL; Anderson RM
Fecal Contamination of Drinking Water Was Associated with Diarrheal Pathogen Carriage among Children Younger than 5 Years in Three Peruvian Rural Communities.
Loyola S; Sanchez JF; Maguiña E; Canal E; Castillo R; Bernal M; Meza Y; Tilley DH; Oswald WE; Heitzinger K
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Development and application of an electronic treatment register: a system for enumerating populations and monitoring treatment during mass drug administration.
Oswald WE; Kennedy DS; Farzana J; Kaliappan SP; Atindegla E; Houngbégnon P; Chisambi A; Witek-McManus S; Galagan SR; Emmanuel-Fabula M
Global Health Action
Patterns of Individual Non-Treatment During Multiple Rounds of Community-Wide Mass Drug Administration for Control of Soil-Transmitted Helminths in the TUMIKIA Trial, Kenya
Oswald WE; Kepha S; Halliday KE; Mcharo C; Safari T; Witek-McManus S; Allen E; Brooker SJ; Njenga SM; Mwandawiro CS
SSRN Electronic Journal
The impact of community-wide, mass drug administration on aggregation of soil-transmitted helminth infection in human host populations.
Werkman M; Wright JE; Truscott JE; Oswald WE; Halliday KE; Papaiakovou M; Farrell SH; Pullan RL; Anderson RM
Parasites & Vectors
Community-level epidemiology of soil-transmitted helminths in the context of school-based deworming: Baseline results of a cluster randomised trial on the coast of Kenya.
Halliday KE; Oswald WE; Mcharo C; Beaumont E; Gichuki PM; Kepha S; Witek-McManus SS; Matendechero SH; El-Busaidy H; Muendo R
PLoS neglected tropical diseases
Domains of transmission and association of community, school, and household sanitation with soil-transmitted helminth infections among children in coastal Kenya.
Oswald WE; Halliday KE; Mcharo C; Witek-McManus S; Kepha S; Gichuki PM; Cano J; Diaz-Ordaz K; Allen E; Mwandawiro CS
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Effects, equity, and cost of school-based and community-wide treatment strategies for soil-transmitted helminths in Kenya: a cluster-randomised controlled trial
Pullan R; Halliday K; Oswald W; Mcharo C; Beaumont E; Kepha S; Witek-McManus S; Gichuki P; Allen E; Drake T
Heterogeneity in transmission parameters of hookworm infection within the baseline data from the TUMIKIA study in Kenya.
Truscott JE; Ower AK; Werkman M; Halliday K; Oswald WE; Gichuki PM; Mcharo C; Brooker S; Njenga SM; Mwandariwo C
Parasites & Vectors
The role of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in reducing soil-transmitted helminths: interpreting the evidence and identifying next steps.
Vaz Nery S; Pickering AJ; Abate E; Asmare A; Barrett L; Benjamin-Chung J; Bundy DAP; Clasen T; Clements ACA; Colford JM
Parasites & Vectors
Assessing the feasibility of interrupting the transmission of soil-transmitted helminths through mass drug administration: The DeWorm3 cluster randomized trial protocol.
Ásbjörnsdóttir KH; Ajjampur SSR; Anderson RM; Bailey R; Gardiner I; Halliday KE; Ibikounle M; Kalua K; Kang G; Littlewood DTJ
PLoS neglected tropical diseases
Active trachoma and community use of sanitation, Ethiopia.
Oswald WE; Stewart AE; Kramer MR; Endeshaw T; Zerihun M; Melak B; Sata E; Gessese D; Teferi T; Tadesse Z
Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Association of community sanitation usage with soil-transmitted helminth infections among school-aged children in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.
Oswald WE; Stewart AEP; Kramer MR; Endeshaw T; Zerihun M; Melak B; Sata E; Gessese D; Teferi T; Tadesse Z
Parasites & vectors
Prediction of Low Community Sanitation Coverage Using Environmental and Sociodemographic Factors in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.
Oswald WE; Stewart AEP; Flanders WD; Kramer MR; Endeshaw T; Zerihun M; Melaku B; Sata E; Gessesse D; Teferi T
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
Provision of private, piped water and sewerage connections and directly observed handwashing of mothers in a peri-urban community of Lima, Peru.
Oswald WE; Hunter GC; Kramer MR; Leontsini E; Cabrera L; Lescano AG; Gilman RH
Tropical medicine & international health
Development of indicators for measuring outcomes of water safety plans.
Lockhart G; Oswald WE; Hubbard B; Medlin E; Gelting RJ
Journal of water, sanitation, and hygiene for development
Direct observation of hygiene in a Peruvian shantytown: not enough handwashing and too little water.
Oswald WE; Hunter GC; Lescano AG; Cabrera L; Leontsini E; Pan WK; Soldan VP; Gilman RH
Tropical medicine & international health
Fecal contamination of drinking water within peri-urban households, Lima, Peru.
Oswald WE; Lescano AG; Bern C; Calderon MM; Cabrera L; Gilman RH
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
See more Publications