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Checking antimalarial drug samples

Bioanalytical facility

State-of-the-art facility to analyse and assess a variety of key medicinal drugs (notably antimalarials, antiretrovirals and antimicrobials) as formulations, in patient samples, and insecticides on fabrics.

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About

Assessing the quality of tools used in disease control (prevention and treatment). Tools of prevention include insecticides on fabrics, sprayed on walls. Treatment include medicines, eye drops and, potentially, vaccines.

Who we are

Harparkash Kaur set up the bioanalytical facility as part of the Gates Malaria Partnership in 2001, and from 2008 was lead investigator on the drug quality project for the ACT Consortium.

About
About bioanalytical facility

Assessing the quality of tools used in disease control (prevention and treatment)

Prevention: Tools of prevention include insecticides on fabrics, sprayed on walls. We use high performance liquid chromatography –photo diode array (HPLC-PDA) detection methods to quantitatively measure the amounts of insecticides i.e. type 2-pyrethroids (detlamathrin, alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin), permethrin, chlorfenapyr, DDT etc.

We have also developed a semi-quantitative test kit for use on the ground to measure type 2-pyrethroids, in the absence of analytical laboratories with HPLC-PDA technologies.

Treatment: Methodology quantitatively measuring all antimalarials (past and present) and their metabolites, as well as antibiotics, antiretroviral and antihypertensive medicines. We routinely analyse using HPLC-PDA to authenticate an antifibrinolytic, tranexamic acid, a medication used to treat or prevent excessive blood loss deployed in the CRASH and HALT-IT trials.

We have also developed a semi-quantitative test kit for use on the ground to measure the artemisinin derivative component of the first line antimalarial medicines.

The facility builds on the work of the ACT Consortium from 2008-2016  http://www.actconsortium.org/projects/9/analysing-the-quality-and-authenticity-of-act-drugs.html

Physicochemical assessment of drugs is highly informative and in vitro dissolution testing is carried out in our laboratory following the pharmacopeia-authorised monograph prior to the start of the clinical trials. This offers information of the in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence of oral solid dosage forms.

Publications
Publications
A New Handheld Device for the Detection of Falsified Medicines: Demonstration on Falsified Artemisinin-Based Therapies from the Field
Wilson, B.K. ; KAUR, H. ; Allan, E.L. ; Lozama, A. ; Bell, D. (2017)
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. ISSN 0002-9637 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0904
Pfk13-independent treatment failure in four imported cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria given artemether-lumefantrine in the UK
Sutherland, CJ; Lansdell, P; Sanders, M; Muwanguzi, J; van Schalkwyk, DA; Kaur, H; Nolder, D; Tucker, J; Bennett, HM; Otto, TD; Berriman, M; Patel, TA; Lynn, R; Gkrania-Klotsas, E; Chiodini, PL (2017)
Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. ISSN 0066-4804 DOI: 10.1128/AAC.02382-16
Degradation of Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies Under Tropical Conditions
Hall, Z; Allan, EL; van Schalkwyk, DA; van Wyk, A; Kaur, H (2016)
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 94 (5). pp. 993-1001. ISSN 0002-9637 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.15-0665
Stability of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine Tablet Halves during Prolonged Storage under Tropical Conditions
Hodel, EM; Kaur, H; Terlouw, DJ (2016)
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. ISSN 0002-9637 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0759
Physicochemical equivalence of generic antihypertensive medicines (EQUIMEDS): protocol for a quality of medicines assessment
Redfern, J; Adedoyin, RA; Ofori, S; Anchala, R; Ajay, VS; de Andrade, L; Zelaya, J; Kaur, H; Balabanova, D; Sani, MU (2016)
BMJ Global Health, 1 (2)
Quality of Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy for malaria found in Ghanaian markets and public health implications of their use
Tivura, M; Asante, I; van Wyk, A; Gyaase, S; Malik, N; Mahama, E; Hostetler, DM; Fernandez, FM; Asante, KP; Kaur, H; Owusu-Agyei, S (2016)
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol, 17 (1). p. 48. ISSN 2050-6511 DOI: 10.1186/s40360-016-0089-2
Personal Protection of Permethrin-Treated Clothing against Aedes aegypti, the Vector of Dengue and Zika Virus, in the Laboratory
Orsborne, J; DeRaedt Banks, S; Hendy, A; Gezan, SA; Kaur, H; Wilder-Smith, A; Lindsay, SW; Logan, JG (2016)
PLoS One, 11 (5). e0152805. ISSN 1932-6203 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152805
Fake anti-malarials: start with the facts
Kaur, H; Clarke, S; Lalani, M; Phanouvong, S; Guérin, P; McLoughlin, A; Wilson, BK; Deats, M; Plançon, A; Hopkins, H; Miranda, D; Schellenberg, D (2016)
Malar J, 15 (1). p. 86. ISSN 1475-2875 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-016-1096-x
A Repeat Random Survey of the Prevalence of Falsified and Substandard Antimalarials in the Lao PDR: A Change for the Better
Tabernero, P; Mayxay, M; Culzoni, MJ; Dwivedi, P; Swamidoss, I; Allan, EL; Khanthavong, M; Phonlavong, C; Vilayhong, C; Yeuchaixiong, S; Sichanh, C; Sengaloundeth, S; Kaur, H; Fernández, FM; Green, MD; Newton, PN; (2015)
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 92 (6 Suppl). pp. 95-104. ISSN 0002-9637 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.15-0057
Quality of Artemisinin-Containing Antimalarials in Tanzania's Private Sector--Results from a Nationally Representative Outlet Survey
ACT Consortium Drug Quality Project Team and the IMPACT2 Study T; (2015)
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 92 (6 Suppl). pp. 75-86. ISSN 0002-9637 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0544
Chemical and Bioassay Techniques to Authenticate Quality of the Anti-Leishmanial Drug Miltefosine
Kaur, H; Seifert, K; Hawkes, GE; Coumbarides, GS; Alvar, J; Croft, SL; (2015)
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 92 (6 Suppl). pp. 31-8. ISSN 0002-9637 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0586
Quality of the Antibiotics-Amoxicillin and Co-Trimoxazole from Ghana, Nigeria, and the United Kingdom
Fadeyi, I; Lalani, M; Mailk, N; Van Wyk, A; Kaur, H; (2015)
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 92 (6 Suppl). pp. 87-94. ISSN 0002-9637 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0539
Substandard Antimalarials Available in Afghanistan: A Case for Assessing the Quality of Drugs in Resource Poor Settings
Lalani, M; Kaur, H; Mohammed, N; Mailk, N; van Wyk, A; Jan, S; Kakar, RM; Mojadidi, MK; Leslie, T; (2015)
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 92 (6 Suppl). pp. 51-8. ISSN 0002-9637 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0394
Quality of Antimalarials at the Epicenter of Antimalarial Drug Resistance: Results from an Overt and Mystery Client Survey in Cambodia
Yeung, S; Lawford, HL; Tabernero, P; Nguon, C; van Wyk, A; Malik, N; DeSousa, M; Rada, O; Boravann, M; Dwivedi, P; Hostetler, DM; Swamidoss, I; Green, MD; Fernandez, FM; Kaur, H; (2015)
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 92 (6 Suppl). pp. 39-50. ISSN 0002-9637 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0391
Efficacy of indoor residual spraying with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane against malaria in Gambian communities with high usage of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets: a cluster-randomised controlled trial
Pinder, M; Jawara, M; Jarju, LB; Salami, K; Jeffries, D; Adiamoh, M; Bojang, K; Correa, S; Kandeh, B; Kaur, H; Conway, DJ; D'Alessandro, U; Lindsay, SW; (2015)
Lancet, 385 (9976). pp. 1436-46. ISSN 0140-6736 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61007-2
Permethrin-Treated Clothing as Protection against the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti: Extent and Duration of Protection
DeRaedt Banks, S; Orsborne, J; Gezan, SA; Kaur, H; Wilder-Smith, A; Lindsey, SW; Logan, JG; (2015)
PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 9 (10). e0004109. ISSN 1935-2727 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004109
Quality of artemisinin-based combination formulations for malaria treatment: prevalence and risk factors for poor quality medicines in public facilities and private sector drug outlets in enugu, Nigeria
Kaur, H; Allan, EL; Mamadu, I; Hall, Z; Ibe, O; El Sherbiny, M; Wyk, Av; Yeung, S; Swamidoss, I; Green, MD; Dwivedi, P; Culzoni, MJ; Clarke, S; Schellenberg, D; Fernández, FM; Onwujekwe, O; (2015)
PLoS One, 10 (5). e0125577. ISSN 1932-6203 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0125577
Assessing the quality of anti-malarial drugs from Gabonese pharmacies using the MiniLab(®): a field study
Visser, BJ; Meerveld-Gerrits, J; Kroon, D; Mougoula, J; Vingerling, R; Bache, E; Boersma, J; van Vugt, M; Agnandji, ST; Kaur, H; Grobusch, MP; (2015)
Malar J, 14 (1). p. 273. ISSN 1475-2875 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-015-0795-z
Evaluation of ICON Maxx, a long-lasting treatment kit for mosquito nets: experimental hut trials against anopheline mosquitoes in Tanzania
Tungu, PK; Malima, R; Mosha, FW; Lyimo, I; Maxwell, C; Kaur, H; Kisinza, WN; Magesa, SM; Kirby, MJ; Rowland, M; (2015)
Malar J, 14 (1). p. 225. ISSN 1475-2875 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-015-0742-z
Counterfeit Pharmaceuticals and Methods to Test Them
Kaur, H; (2015)
In: Walport, Mark, (ed.) Annual Report of the Government Chief Scientific Adviser 2015: Forensic Science and Beyond: Authenticity, Provenance and Assurance Evidence and Case Studies. Government Office for Science, London, pp. 132-7.
Evaluating the feasibility of using insecticide quantification kits (IQK) for estimating cyanopyrethroid levels for indoor residual spraying in Vanuatu
Russell, TL; Morgan, JC; Ismail, H; Kaur, H; Eggelte, T; Oladepo, F; Amon, J; Hemingway, J; Iata, H; Paine, MJI; (2014)
Malaria Journal, 13. p. 178. ISSN 1475-2875 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-13-178
Laboratory and experimental hut evaluation of a long-lasting insecticide treated blanket for protection against mosquitoes
Kitau, J; Oxborough, R; Kaye, A; Chen-Hussey, V; Isaacs, E; Matowo, J; Kaur, H; Magesa, SM; Mosha, F; Rowland, M; Logan, J; (2014)
Parasit Vectors, 7 (1). p. 129. ISSN 1756-3305 DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-7-129
Residual Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in Kenyan children after artemisinin-combination therapy is associated with increased transmission to mosquitoes and parasite recurrence
Beshir, KB; Sutherland, CJ; Sawa, P; Drakeley, CJ; Okell, L; Mweresa, CK; Omar, SA; Shekalaghe, SA; Kaur, H; Ndaro, A; Chilongola, J; Schallig, HD; Sauerwein, RW; Hallett, RL; Bousema, T; (2013)
The Journal of infectious diseases, 208 (12). pp. 2017-24. ISSN 0022-1899 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jit431
HIV-positive Nigerian adults harbour significantly higher serum lumefantrine levels than HIV-negative individuals seven days after treatment for Plasmodium falciparum infection
Chijioke-Nwauche, I; van Wyk, A; Nwauche, C; Beshir, KB; Kaur, H; Sutherland, CJ; (2013)
Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 57 (9). pp. 4146-50. ISSN 0066-4804 DOI: 10.1128/AAC.02508-12
Evaluation of the long-lasting insecticidal net Interceptor LN: laboratory and experimental hut studies against anopheline and culicine mosquitoes in northeastern Tanzania
Malima, R; Tungu, PK; Mwingira, V; Maxwell, C; Magesa, SM; Kaur, H; Kirby, MJ; Rowland, M; (2013)
Parasit Vectors, 6 (1). p. 296. ISSN 1756-3305 DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-6-296
Assessing the quality of artemisinin combination therapies from Sub Saharan Africa and Cambodia, using analytical techniques
Kaur, H; Long, J; van Wyk, A; Malik, N; Mamadu, I; Allan, L; Yeung, S; Fadei, I; Green, M; Fernandez, F; (2013)
Advanced analytical strategies for drug quality assessment
Dwivedi, P; Fernandez, F; Kaur, H; (2013)
A community-randomised evaluation of the effect of IPTi on anti-malarial drug resistance in southern Tanzania
Pearce, RJ; Ord, R; Kaur, H; Lupala, C; Schellenberg, J; Shirima, K; Manzi, F; Alonso, P; Tanner, M; Mshinda, H; Roper, C; Schellenberg, D; (2013)
The Journal of infectious diseases, 207 (5). pp. 848-59. ISSN 0022-1899 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jis742
Residual activity and integrity of PermaNet(®) 2.0 after 24 months of household use in a community randomised trial of long lasting insecticidal nets against visceral leishmaniasis in India and Nepal
Picado, A; Singh, SP; Vanlerberghe, V; Uranw, S; Ostyn, B; Kaur, H; Das, ML; Sundar, S; Rijal, S; Tungu, P; Boelaert, M; Rowland, M; (2012)
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 106 (3). pp. 150-9. ISSN 0035-9203 DOI: 10.1016/j.trstmh.2011.10.014
Travel and fake artesunate: a risky business
Chaccour, CJ; Kaur, H; Mabey, D; Del Pozo, JL; (2012)
Lancet, 380 (9847). p. 1120. ISSN 0140-6736 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60649-7
Poor quality drugs: grand challenges in high throughput detection, countrywide sampling, and forensics in developing countries
Fernandez, FM; Hostetler, D; Powell, K; Kaur, H; Green, MD; Mildenhall, DC; Newton, PN; (2011)
The Analyst, 136 (15). pp. 3073-3082. ISSN 0003-2654 DOI: 10.1039/c0an00627k
Poor quality vital anti-malarials in Africa - an urgent neglected public health priority
Newton, PN; Green, MD; Mildenhall, DC; Plancon, A; Nettey, H; Nyadong, L; Hostetler, DM; Swamidoss, I; Harris, GA; Powell, K; Timmermans, AE; Amin, AA; Opuni, SK; Barbereau, S; Faurant, C; Soong, RCW; Faure, K; Thevanayagam, J; Fernandes, P; Kaur, H; Angus, B; Stepniewska, K; Guerin, PJ; Fernandez, FM; (2011)
Malaria Journal, 10. p. 352. ISSN 1475-2875 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-352
Oral activated charcoal prevents experimental cerebral malaria in mice and in a randomized controlled clinical trial in man did not interfere with the pharmacokinetics of parenteral artesunate
de Souza, JB; Okomo, U; Alexander, ND; Aziz, N; Owens, BM; Kaur, H; Jasseh, M; Muangnoicharoen, S; Sumariwalla, PF; Warhurst, DC; Ward, SA; Conway, DJ; Ulloa, L; Tracey, KJ; Foxwell, BM; Kaye, PM; Walther, M; (2010)
PLoS One, 5 (4). e9867. ISSN 1932-6203 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009867
Duration of protection against clinical malaria provided by three regimens of intermittent preventive treatment in tanzanian infants
Cairns, M; Gosling, R; Carneiro, I; Gesase, S; Mosha, JF; Hashim, R; Kaur, H; Lemnge, M; Mosha, FW; Greenwood, B; Chandramohan, D; (2010)
PLoS One, 5 (3). e9467. ISSN 1932-6203 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009467
Antimalarial drug quality: methods to detect suspect drugs
Kaur, H; Green, MD; Hostetler, DM; Fernáández, FM; Newton, PN; (2010)
Therapy, 7. pp. 49-57. ISSN 1475-0708 DOI: 10.2217/thy.09.84
Is K-O Tab 1-2-3((R)); long-lasting on non-polyester mosquito nets?
Oxborough, RM; Weir, V; Irish, S; Kaur, H; N'guessan, R; Boko, P; Odjo, A; Metonnou, C; Yates, A; Akogbeto, M; Rowland, MW; (2009)
Acta tropica, 112 (1). pp. 49-53. ISSN 0001-706X DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2009.06.005
Composition and Biting Activity of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Amazon Region of Colombia
Rodriguez, M; Perez, L; Caicedo, JC; Prieto, G; Arroyo, JA; Kaur, H; Suarez-Mutis, M; de la Iioz, F; Lines, J; Alexander, N; (2009)
Journal of medical entomology, 46 (2). pp. 307-315. ISSN 0022-2585 DOI: 10.1603/033.046.0215
Quality of anti-malarial drugs provided by public and private healthcare providers in south-east Nigeria
Onwujekwe, O; Kaur, H; Dike, N; Shu, E; Uzochukwu, B; Hanson, K; Okoye, V; Okonkwo, P; (2009)
Malar J, 8. p. 22. ISSN 1475-2875 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-22
Epidemic of Plasmodium falciparum malaria involving substandard antimalarial drugs, Pakistan, 2003
Leslie, T; Kaur, H; Mohammed, N; Kolaczinski, K; Ord, RL; Rowland, M; (2009)
Emerging infectious diseases, 15 (11). pp. 1753-9. ISSN 1080-6040 DOI: 10.3201/eid1511.090886
Simple field assays to check quality of current artemisinin-based antimalarial combination formulations
Ioset, JR; Kaur, H; (2009)
PLoS One, 4 (9). e7270. ISSN 1932-6203 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007270
Guidelines for Field Surveys of the Quality of Medicines: A Proposal
Newton, PN; Lee, SJ; Goodman, C; Fernandez, FM; Yeung, S; Phanouvong, S; Kaur, H; Amin, AA; Whitty, CJM; Kokwaro, GO; Lindegardh, N; Lukulay, P; White, LJ; Day, NPJ; Green, MD; White, NJ; (2009)
PLoS medicine, 6 (3). ISSN 1549-1277 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000052
The effects of different drying methods and sun exposure on the concentrations of deltamethrin in nets treated with K-O Tab((R)) tablets
Kayedi, MH; Kaur, H; Haghdoost, AA; Lines, JD; (2009)
Annals of tropical medicine and parasitology, 103 (1). pp. 85-90. ISSN 0003-4983 DOI: 10.1179/136485909X385018
Validation of spermidine synthase as a drug target in African trypanosomes
Taylor, MC; Kaur, H; Blessington, B; Kelly, JM; Wilkinson, SR; (2008)
The Biochemical journal, 409 (2). pp. 563-9. ISSN 0264-6021 DOI: 10.1042/BJ20071185
A nationwide survey of the quality of antimalarials in retail outlets in Tanzania
Kaur, H; Goodman, C; Thompson, E; Thompson, KA; Masanja, I; Kachur, SP; Abdulla, S; (2008)
PLoS One, 3 (10). e3403. ISSN 1932-6203 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003403
The terminal step in vitamin C biosynthesis in Trypanosoma cruzi is mediated by a FMN-dependent galactonolactone oxidase
Logan, FJ; Taylor, MC; Wilkinson, SR; Kaur, H; Kelly, JM; (2007)
The Biochemical journal, 407 (3). pp. 419-26. ISSN 0264-6021 DOI: 10.1042/BJ20070766
ASSAY, KIT AND APPARATUS FOR DETECTION OF ARTEMISININ DERIVATIVES
Kaur, H; Ioset, J.-, R; (2007)
ASSAY, KIT AND APPARATUS FOR DETECTION OF ARTEMISININ DERIVATIVES.
Manslaughter by Fake Artesunate in Asia-Will Africa Be Next?
Newton, PN; McGready, R; Fernandez, F; Green, MD; Sunjio, M; Bruneton, C; Phanouvong, S; Millet, P; Whitty, CJ; Talisuna, AO; Proux, S; Christophel, EM; Malenga, G; Singhasivanon, P; Bojang, K; Kaur, H; Palmer, K; Day, NP; Greenwood, BM; Nosten, F; White, NJ; (2006)
PLoS medicine, 3 (6). 752-755 . ISSN 1549-1277 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030197
Multi-country field trials comparing wash-resistance of PermaNettrade mark and conventional insecticide-treated nets against anopheline and culicine mosquitoes
Graham, K; Kayedi, MH; Maxwell, C; Kaur, H; Rehman, H; Malima, R; Curtis, CF; Lines, JD; Rowland, MW; (2005)
Medical and veterinary entomology, 19 (1). pp. 72-83. ISSN 0269-283X DOI: 10.1111/j.0269-283X.2005.00543.x
Evaluation of KO-Tab 1-2-3(R): a wash-resistant 'dip-it-yourself' insecticide formulation for long-lasting treatment of mosquito nets
Yates, A; N'guessan, R; Kaur, H; Akogbeto, M; Rowland, M; (2005)
Malar J, 4. p. 52. ISSN 1475-2875 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-4-52
Pilot study of the use of procalcitonin to predict bacterial pneumonia in the Gambia
Cutts, FT; Zaman, A; Enwere, G; Biney, E; Akano, A; Kaur, H; Olulwalana, C; Vaughan, A; Okoko, B; Adegbola, R; Levine, O; Greenwood, B; (2004)
Systemic concentrations of antioxidants and biomarkers of macromolecular oxidative damage in horses with grass sickness
McGorum, BC; Wilson, R; Pirie, RS; Mayhew, IG; Kaur, H; Aruoma, OI; (2003)
Equine veterinary journal, 35 (2). pp. 121-126. ISSN 0425-1644 DOI: 10.2746/042516403776114225
A biological role for bilirubin as a scavenger of reactive nitrogen species
Kaur, H; Hughes, MN; Naughton, P; Green, CJ; Foresti, R; Motterlini, R; (2003)
FEBS letters, 543. pp. 113-119. ISSN 0014-5793 DOI: 10.1016/S0014-5793(03)00420-4
Oxidative Damage in Inflammatory Joint Diseases
Kaur, H; (2003)
In: Bahorun, T; Gurib-Fakim, A, (eds.) Molecular and Therapeutic Aspects of Redox Biochemistry. OICA International, London, pp. 127-144.
Oxidative stress in the myocardium and vascular system
Kaur, H; Rakhit, D; Davies, S; (2003)
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Address – Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT
Phone – 0207 299 4629
Email Harparkash.kaur@lshtm.ac.uk