Prof Paul Fine

Professor of Communicable Disease Epid

United Kingdom


Paul Fine trained originally in zoology, veterinary medicine, parasitology and epidemiology, and joined the staff of LSHTM in 1976. His major methodological interests have been in infection dynamics, family studies, genetics, and the evaluation of vaccines (efficacy, adverse reactions and impact), applied to a variety of infections. Much of his earlier work concentrated upon vertical (from parent to progeny) transmission of infections and upon measles and pertussis in the UK. He directed a large epidemiological research programme (the "Karonga Prevention Study") in Malawi from 1978-2006, concentrating at first upon leprosy, then tuberculosis, and ultimately HIV, and including demographic surveillance, vaccine evaluation, and studies of other infections in a rural population in northern Malawi. Since 1997 he has worked on a wide variety of vaccine issues, including the evaluation of non-specific effects of vaccines, methods for field evaluation of veterinary vaccines, the implications of the transmissibility of oral polio vaccine viruses for the polio eradication initiative, and methods for optimising vaccination schedules.


Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and International Health
Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health


Centre for Evaluation
Malaria Centre
Centre for Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases
TB Centre
Vaccine Centre
Antimicrobial Resistance Centre



He is involved in epidemiology-related teaching on several of the MSc and short courses offered by the LSHTM.



He has broad interests in infectious disease epidemiology, with particular emphasis upon vaccines (trials, safety and efficacy evaluations of BCG, measles, pertussis, mumps, polio), mycobacterial diseases (including genetics, immune responses, risk factors, vaccine and drug trials of leprosy and tuberculosis) and family studies (in the broadest sense, including both Mendelian and non-Mendelian inheritance). He directed a large study of tuberculosis, leprosy and HIV in northern Malawi (the Karonga Prevention Study) from 1978 to 2006.



• Epidemiology

Research areas

• Clinical trials

• Vaccines

Diseases and Health Conditions

• Infectious disease

• Leprosy

• Tuberculosis

Selected Publications

Leprosy in Sri Lanka: Epidemiological trends between 1985–2021
Wijesinghe, MS D; Prasad Ranaweera, KD N; FINE, P;
Leprosy Review
When to update COVID-19 vaccine composition.
Grant, R; Sacks, JA; Abraham, P; Chunsuttiwat, S; Cohen, C; Figueroa, JP; Fleming, T; FINE, P; Goldblatt, D; Hasegawa, H; MacIntrye, CR; Memish, ZA; MILLER, E; Nishioka, S; Sall, AA; Sow, S; Tomori, O; Wang, Y; Van Kerkhove, MD; Wambo, M-A; Cohen, HA; Mesfin, S; Otieno, JR; Subissi, L; Briand, S; ... Subbarao, K.
Nature medicine
National and regional prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in primary and secondary school children in England: the School Infection Survey, a national open cohort study, November 2021SARS-CoV-2 antibody prevalence in school children.
Powell, AA; Ireland, G; Leeson, R; Lacey, A; Ford, B; Poh, J; Ijaz, S; Shute, J; Cherepanov, P; Tedder, R; BOTTOMLEY, C; Dawe, F; MANGTANI, P; Jones, P; NGUIPDOP-DJOMO, P; Ladhani, SN; COVID-19 Schools Infection Survey Group,;
The Journal of infection
Contribution of remote M.tuberculosis infection to tuberculosis disease: A 30-year population study.
PloS one
Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection in primary and secondary school students and staff in England in the 2020/2021 school year: a longitudinal study.
NGUIPDOP-DJOMO, P; OSWALD, WE; HALLIDAY, KE; Cook, S; STURGESS, J; SUNDARAM, N; WARREN-GASH, C; FINE, PE; GLYNN, J; ALLEN, E; CLARK, TG; Ford, B; Judd, A; Ireland, G; Poh, J; BONELL, C; Dawe, F; Rourke, E; Diamond, I; Ladhani, SN; LANGAN, SM; HARGREAVES, J; MANGTANI, P; COVID-19 Schools Infection Survey Study Group,;
International Journal of Infectious Diseases
Seroepidemiology and Carriage of Diphtheria in Epidemic-Prone Area and Implications for Vaccination Policy, Vietnam
Kitamura, N; Hoan, TT; Do, HM; Dao, TA; Le, LT; Le, TT T; Doan, TT T; Chau, TN; Dinh, HT; Iwaki, M; Senoh, M; Efstraciou, A; Ho, NM; Pham, DM; Dang, D-A; Toizumi, M; FINE, P; Do, HT; Yoshida, L-M;
Emerging infectious diseases
Genome-wide association study of leprosy in Malawi and Mali
Gilchrist, JJ; Auckland, K; Parks, T; Mentzer, AJ; Goldblatt, L; Naranbhai, V; Band, G; Rockett, KA; Toure, OB; Konate, S; Sissoko, S; Djimdé, AA; Thera, MA; Doumbo, OK; Sow, S; FLOYD, S; Pönnighaus, JM; Warndorff, DK; Crampin, AC; FINE, PE M; Fairfax, BP; Hill, AV S;
PLoS pathogens
Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection among staff and students in a cohort of English primary and secondary schools during 2020-2021.
HARGREAVES, JR; LANGAN, SM; OSWALD, WE; HALLIDAY, KE; STURGESS, J; PHELAN, J; NGUIPDOP-DJOMO, P; Ford, B; ALLEN, E; SUNDARAM, N; Ireland, G; Poh, J; Ijaz, S; Diamond, I; Rourke, E; Dawe, F; Judd, A; WARREN-GASH, C; CLARK, TG; GLYNN, JR; EDMUNDS, WJ; BONELL, C; MANGTANI, P; Ladhani, SN; COVID-19 Schools Infection Survey Study Group,;
The Lancet Regional Health Europe
The seroprevalence, waning rate, and protective duration of anti-diphtheria toxoid IgG antibody in Nha Trang, Vietnam.
KITAMURA, N; Le, LT; Le, TT T; Nguyen, H-AT; EDWARDS, T; Madaniyazi, L; Bui, MX; Do, HT; Dang, D-A; Toizumi, M; FINE, P; Yoshida, L-M;
International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases
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