Dr Virginia Bond

PhD PG Dip

Associate Professor

Ridgeway Campus

+260 211 254 710

+260 211 257 215

I was born and brought up in independent Africa. I trained as a social anthropologist at the Universities of Edinburgh and Hull in the UK. I have always applied anthropology to public health and often worked with large interdisciplinary teams on field-based studies in Zambia and South Africa. To date, I have worked on six community randomised trials, leading the social science components.  The most recent CRTs include HPTN 071 (PopART) that aimed to reduce HIV incidence at population level, and TREATS, that is measuring the impact of the PopART package of HIV prevention on Tuberculosis (TB). Since 2001, I have worked with health-related stigma, conducting both research and interventions. I have mostly been based overseas for LSHTM.  From 2004, I have been a director of Zambart, a research institution housed within the School of Public Health at the University of Zambia. 


Department of Global Health and Development
Faculty of Public Health and Policy


Centre for Evaluation
TB Centre


At LSHTM, I am now the Module Organiser for DL module on Research Design and Methods in the analysis of Global Health Policy. I also contribute to the Tuberculosis module in DL MSc in Infectious Disease and the AIDS Study Unit, and have contributed to the Medical Anthropology modules (DL and face to face). I have supervised 7 PhD students to successful completion and I am currently supervising 2 PhD students. PhD research has included: HIV (men's role in vaginal microbicides, HIV management in couples and young women living with HIV in Zambia), STIs (ethnography of the management of STIs in a rural Zambia), TB (children's role in managing TB, TB and mental health), community engagement and ethics in CRTs, and, disability (disability groups, the impact of COVID-19 on people with disability). I am currently a mentor for two African scholars (Musonda Simwinga and Collins Iwuji)through a EDCTP fellowship and the LSHTM executive programme. In Zambia and South Africa, I have led training linked to research studies on: academic writing skills; participatory research methods; Broad Brush Surveys; stigma and sexual behaviour research methods; child centred methodologies; household-surveys; study protocols; and ethics.  I have helped develop adult education material on raising awareness and challenging HIV and TB stigma.  I completed CILT 1 in June 2012.  I am committed to building social science capacity in sub-Saharan Africa.


My main theoretical areas of interest are health-related stigma (including TB, HIV, disability, STIs, schistosomiasis and COVID-19), critical social science within community randomised trials  and the application of a qualitative methodological approach called 'Broad Brush Surveys' to rapidly assess urban systems to improve public health including water and sanitation  nd schistosomiasis. I am an advocate of interdisciplinary public health reseach endeavours and to ethnographic and/or broader understanding of community response to epidemics and health interventions, including community ownership of epidemic management. Building on my experience in Zambia, I am involved in decolonising global health research processes and discussions. 




Research Area
Clinical trials
Complex interventions
Public health
Social and structural determinants of health
Adolescent health
Qualitative methods
Randomised controlled trials
Operational research
Social Sciences
Disease and Health Conditions
Chronic disease
Infectious disease
Mental health
Sexually transmitted disease
Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)
South Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa (all income levels)

Selected Publications

Social response to the delivery of HIV self-testing in households: experiences from four Zambian HPTN 071 (PopART) urban communities.
Bwalya C; Simwinga M; Hensen B; Gwanu L; Hang'andu A; Mulubwa C; Phiri M; Hayes R; Fidler S; Mwinga A
AIDS Research and Therapy
Three lessons for the COVID-19 response from pandemic HIV.
Hargreaves J; Davey C; Group for lessons from pandemic HIV prevention for the COVID-19
The Lancet HIV
Who Accepts and Who Uses Community-Based Secondary Distribution HIV Self-Testing (HIVST) Kits? Findings From the Intervention Arm of a Cluster-Randomized Trial of HIVST Distribution Nested in Four HPTN 071 (PopART) Communities in Zambia.
Hensen B; Schaap AJ; Mulubwa C; Floyd S; Shanaube K; Phiri MM; Bond V; Bwalya C; Simwinga M; Fidler S
Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
Stigma and Judgment Toward People Living with HIV and Key Population Groups Among Three Cadres of Health Workers in South Africa and Zambia: Analysis of Data from the HPTN 071 (PopART) Trial.
Krishnaratne S; Bond V; Stangl A; Pliakas T; Mathema H; Lilleston P; Hoddinott G; Bock P; Ayles H; Fidler S
AIDS patient care and STDs
Coming of age with HIV: a temporal understanding of young women's experiences in Zambia.
Mackworth-Young CRS; Bond V; Stangl AL; Chonta M; Wringe A
Secrets and Silence: Agency of Young Women Managing HIV Disclosure.
Mackworth-Young CRS; Bond V; Wringe A
Medical Anthropology: cross-cultural studies in health and illness
Critical Reflections on Individual Collages as a Research Method With Young Women Living With HIV in Zambia
Mackworth-Young CRS; Wringe A; Clay S; Chonta M; Chiiya C; Konayuma K; Sievwright K; Mbewe M; Mwale M; Stangl AL
Emerging Adulthood
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