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Environmental risks in the developing world: exposure indicators for evaluating interventions, programmes, and policies

Ezzati, M.; Utzinger, J.; Cairncross, S.; Cohen, A. J.; Singer, B. H.
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 2005; 59(1):15-22
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pub_id
228009900005
pubmedid
15598721
ISI
228009900005
reference_type
Journal Article
author
Ezzati, M.; Utzinger, J.; Cairncross, S.; Cohen, A. J.; Singer, B. H.
title
Environmental risks in the developing world: exposure indicators for evaluating interventions, programmes, and policies
secondary_title
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
ISBNISSN
1470-2738
volume
59
number
1
pages
15-22
year
2005
abstract
Background: Monitoring and empirical evaluation are essential components of evidence based public health policies and programmes. Consequently, there is a growing interest in monitoring of, and indicators for, major environmental health risks, particularly in the developing world. Current large scale data collection efforts are generally disconnected from micro-scale studies in health sciences, which in turn have insufficiently investigated the behavioural and socioeconomic factors that influence exposure. Study design: A basic framework is proposed for development of indicators of exposure to environmental health risks that would facilitate the (a) assessment of the health effects of risk factors, (b) design and evaluation of interventions and programmes to deliver the interventions, and (c) appraisal and quantification of inequalities in health effects of risk factors, and benefits of intervention programmes and policies. Specific emphasis is put on the features of environmental risks that should guide the choice of indicators, in particular the interactions of technology, the environment, and human behaviour in determining exposure. The indicators are divided into four categories: ( a) access and infrastructure, ( b) technology, (c) agents and vectors, and (d) behaviour. The study used water and sanitation, indoor air pollution from solid fuels, urban ambient air pollution, and malaria as illustrative examples for this framework. Conclusions: Organised and systematic indicator selection and monitoring can provide an evidence base for design and implementation of more effective and equitable technological interventions, delivery programmes, and policies for environmental health risks in resource poor settings.
keywords
Indoor air-pollution; health impacts; developing-countries; malaria control; fly control; diarrhea; combustion; disease; kenya; microenvironments
secondary_author
place_published
publisher
number_of_volumes
tertiary_author
tertiary_title
edition
date
2005-01-01
type_of_work
subsidiary_author
alternate_title
J Epidemiol Community Health
call_number
accession_number
ISI:000228009900005
custom_1
WOS OK
custom_2
Unknown
custom_3
custom_4
10.1136/jech.2003.019471
custom_5
PMC
custom_6
10
label
2016-10-19
notes
Article
url
author_address
Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115 USA Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA Swiss Trop Inst, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London WC1, England Hlth Effects Inst, Boston, MA USA Princeton Univ, Off Populat Res, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA
library
date_accepted
date_online
created
2005-05-10 13:38:45
modified
2016-07-08 00:00:00
library