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The epidemiology of hepatitis A in Rio de Janeiro: environmental and domestic risk factors

Almeida, L. M.; Werneck, G. L.; Cairncross, S.; Coeli, C. M.; Costa, M. C. E.; Coletty, P. E.
Epidemiology and Infection, 2001; 127(2):327-33
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pub_id
11693510
pubmedid
11693510
ISI
172246300017
reference_type
Journal Article
author
Almeida, L. M.; Werneck, G. L.; Cairncross, S.; Coeli, C. M.; Costa, M. C. E.; Coletty, P. E.
title
The epidemiology of hepatitis A in Rio de Janeiro: environmental and domestic risk factors
secondary_title
Epidemiology and Infection
ISBNISSN
0950-2688
volume
127
number
2
pages
327-33
year
2001
abstract
A serological study of hepatitis A was carried out in low-income areas scheduled for a major sanitation programme in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Blood spots were collected by finger puncture and transported on filter paper, and total antibodies to hepatitis A virus were detected by ELISA. Households were also interviewed to collect information on their environmental conditions and socio-economic status. A generalized linear model using a complementary log-log function was fitted to the data, using the logarithm of age as an explanatory variable to derive adjusted rate ratios (RR). The risk of infection was greater among households with 2-3 members per room (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.04-1.8) or more than three per room (RR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.2-2.0). People living on hilltops (RR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.02-2.2), near to open sewers (RR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.03-1.5) or lacking a kitchen (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.08-1.9) were also at greater risk than others. The number of taps and water-using fittings in the house was associated with a protective effect (RR = 0.9 for each tap; 95% CI = 0.9-0.98). A significant protective association was found with maternal education but not with gender or household income. The results do not suggest a strong association with water quality. Ownership of a ceramic water filter was associated with a protective effect on the margin of significance, but the practice of boiling drinking-water was not, nor was the type of water source used. The results suggest that that the risk of infection with hepatitis A is determined by environmental variables in the domestic and public domains.
keywords
Age-specific prevalence; latin-america; children; antibodies; viruses; workers; disease ; Adolescence; Adult; Age Distribution; Brazil; epidemiology; Child; Child, Preschool; Crowding; Educational Status; Environmental Exposure; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay; Hepatitis A; blood; epidemiology; etiology; Hepatitis Antibodies; isolation & purification; Housing; Human; Income; Infant; Questionnaires; Risk Factors; Seroepidemiologic Studies; Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Urban Population; Water Supply;
secondary_author
place_published
publisher
number_of_volumes
tertiary_author
tertiary_title
edition
date
Oct
type_of_work
subsidiary_author
alternate_title
Epidemiol. Infect.
call_number
accession_number
11693510
custom_1
custom_2
Unknown
custom_3
custom_4
custom_5
PMC
custom_6
10
label
2016-10-19
notes
Journal Article
url
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11693510
author_address
Núcleo de Estudos de Saúde Coletiva, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro.
library
11693510
date_accepted
date_online
created
2003-07-30 10:35:51
modified
2016-07-08 00:00:00
library

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